Differential Effects of Motives and Points of Attachment on Conative Loyalty of Formula 1 U.S. Grand Prix Attendees

Khalid Ballouli
Galen T. Trail
Todd C. Koesters
and Matthew J. Bernthal

This research examines the differential effects of motives and points of attachment on conative loyalty of Formula 1 U.S. Grand Prix attendees. Theoretical perspectives of role identity and extant literature on identification and spectator consumption behavior guided this investigation and aided in model development. While numerous researchers in the sport marketing literature have examined motives and points of attachment, there is a relative dearth of studies devoted to the effects of motives and points of attachment on conative loyalty. Study participants (N=247) comprised spectators of the 2014 Formula 1 U.S. Grand Prix held in Austin, Texas. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test the measurement model and the structural model. Findings showed that the proposed model fit the data well—motives and points of attachment combined to explain much of the variance in conative loyalty. The results have theoretical implications for sport consumer research, as well as practical insights for Formula 1.

Open Access