The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance

Julia Bredtmann
Carsten J. Crede
and Sebastian Otten

In this article, we propose a new estimation strategy that draws on the variation in the performance between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the effect of gender equality on women’s soccer success. For this, country year fixed effects are used to control for both time-constant and time-variant country specific factors. Our results reveal that within-country differences in our proxies for gender equality explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but have no notable explanatory power for the success of male teams. This suggests that gender equality is an important determinant of female sport success.

Open Access