Research Methods in Sport Management

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Filled with helpful figures and charts, this first-of-its-kind textbook is a vital resource for students, teachers, and industry professionals.

Authors Ming Li, Brenda Pitts, and Jerome Quarterman are all expert researchers in their areas of specialization and have written extensively in both books and journals. Their current roles in teaching college-level courses have allowed them to understand exactly how to tailor research methods to the topic of sport management and to compile the important information presented in Research Methods in Sport Management.

Unique Features of Research Methods in Sport Management

  • Sound guidelines to learning and building knowledge and skills in doing research
  • Practical and useful examples from the real world of sport business
  • An organized presentation of research methods from the most basic to the complex
  • Inclusion of timely issues of ethics in research practice and reporting
  • Emphasis on sound decision making in research practice
  • A research process model that guides from question development through to research method and application
  • Study questions and learning activities in each chapter
  • 125 figures, charts, and tables

Contents

Detailed Table of Contents...................................................................................................................... vii

Preface................................................................................................................................................ xix

Chapter 1... Introduction to Sport Management Research........................................................................... 1

Chapter 2... The Research Process in Sport Management.......................................................................... 17

Chapter 3... Interpretation of Qualitative Research in Sport Management Studies........................................ 33

Chapter 4... Case Study Research in Sport Management........................................................................... 43

Chapter 5... The Interview.................................................................................................................... 67

Chapter 6... Focus Group Research........................................................................................................ 81

Chapter 7... Observation Research......................................................................................................... 93

Chapter 8... Secondary Data................................................................................................................ 107

Chapter 9... Survey Research.............................................................................................................. 121

Chapter 10... Experimental Research..................................................................................................... 139

Chapter 11... Ethics in Sport Management Research and Publications........................................................ 155

Chapter 12... Measurement and Scaling in Sport Management Studies....................................................... 171

Chapter 13... Attitude Measurement....................................................................................................... 187

Chapter 14... Questionnaire Design........................................................................................................ 205

Chapter 15... Sampling Methods and Procedures in Sport Management Research........................................ 229

Chapter 16... Data Editing, Coding, and Transforming............................................................................. 243

Chapter 17... Introduction to Statistical Data Analysis in Sport Management Research................................ 259

Chapter 18... Descriptive Statistics in Sport Management Research........................................................... 273

Chapter 19... Statistical Testing of Differences........................................................................................ 289

Chapter 20... Multivariate Data Analysis................................................................................................ 305

Chapter 21... Communicating Research Results:...................................................................................... 323

Written Report and Oral Presentations

Index.................................................................................................................................................. 345

About the Authors................................................................................................................................ 357

 

Detailed Table of Contents

 

 

Chapter 1—Introduction to Sport Management Research.................................... 1

Nature and Scope of Sport Management Research...................................................................................... 3

Research in Our Daily Lives............................................................................................................. 3

Sport Management Research Defined................................................................................................ 4

Research for the Body of Knowledge in Sport Management......................................................................... 4

Value of Research for Students in Sport Management.......................................................................... 4

Value of Research for the Practice of Sport Management..................................................................... 5

Characteristics of Sport Management Research................................................................................... 5

Major Purposes of Sport Management Research................................................................................. 6

Philosophical Approaches to Sport Management Research............................................................................ 7

Positivist Paradigm.......................................................................................................................... 7

Naturalist Paradigm......................................................................................................................... 8

Major Approaches to Sport Management Research..................................................................................... 9

Basic and Applied Research in Sport Management............................................................................... 9

Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Sport Management............................................................. 10

Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research in Sport Management................................................. 11

The Evolution and Future of Sport Management Research........................................................................ 12

Summary.............................................................................................................................................. 13

 

Chapter 2—The Research Process in Sport Management................................ 17

Decision Making and Related Variables.................................................................................................... 19

Certainty versus Uncertainty.......................................................................................................... 19

Ambiguity.................................................................................................................................... 20

The Research Process in Sport Management.............................................................................................. 20

Step 1: Identify the Problem or Question.......................................................................................... 20

Step 2: Define the Problem or Question........................................................................................... 21

Step 3: Explore for Answers........................................................................................................... 22

Step 4: Define Research Objectives.................................................................................................. 22

Step 5: Determine the Research Design............................................................................................ 23

Qualitative Research Methods in Sport Management................................................................. 23

Case Study.................................................................................................................... 23

Interviews..................................................................................................................... 24

Focus Group................................................................................................................. 24

Observation................................................................................................................... 24

Quantitative Research Methods in Sport Management.................................................................. 25

Secondary Data............................................................................................................. 25

Surveys........................................................................................................................ 25

Experiment................................................................................................................... 26

Step 6: Conduct Data Collection...................................................................................................... 26

 

Step 7: Analyze the Data................................................................................................................ 27

Step 8: Report the Results............................................................................................................... 27

The Research Proposal............................................................................................................................ 27

Summary.............................................................................................................................................. 30

Chapter 3—Interpretation of Qualitative Research

in Sport Management Studies........................................................................................... 33

Qualitative Research Defined.................................................................................................................. 35

Qualitative Research versus Quantitative Research...................................................................................... 36

The Choice of a Qualitative Research Approach................................................................................ 36

The Choice of a Quantitative Research Approach............................................................................... 38

Data Collection Techniques of Qualitative Research................................................................................... 38

Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research Design......................................................................................... 38

Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research...................................................................................... 38

Future Directions and Publications of Qualitative Research in the................................................................ 39

Field of Sport Management and Sport Marketing

Summary.............................................................................................................................................. 41

Chapter 4—Case Study Research in Sport Management.................................... 43

Case Study as a Research Design: Historical Context.................................................................................. 45

Case Study Defined................................................................................................................................ 46

Case Study as a Research Design in Sport Management.............................................................................. 48

Building Theory from Case Study Research.............................................................................................. 48

What Is a Theory?.......................................................................................................................... 48

Types of Theories.......................................................................................................................... 49

Theory Building............................................................................................................................ 49

Types of Case Studies............................................................................................................................. 50

Designing a Case Study.......................................................................................................................... 53

Evaluating Case Study Research Designs.................................................................................................. 55

Dependability................................................................................................................................ 55

Credibility.................................................................................................................................... 56

Conducting Case Studies......................................................................................................................... 56

Preparing for Data Collection.......................................................................................................... 58

Arrangements for the Study............................................................................................................ 58

Case Selection and Conducting a Pilot Study.................................................................................... 59

Collecting the Evidence.................................................................................................................. 59

Principles of Case Study Data Collection.......................................................................................... 59

Triangulation/Crystallization................................................................................................... 59

Case Study Database.............................................................................................................. 60

Chain of Evidence................................................................................................................. 60

Case Study Analysis............................................................................................................................... 61

Presenting a Case Study.......................................................................................................................... 62

Evaluating the Quality of Case Study Reports........................................................................................... 63

Concerns with Case Study Research......................................................................................................... 63

Summary.............................................................................................................................................. 63

 

Chapter 5—The Interview..................................................................................................... 67

The Nature of the Interview as a Qualitative Research Technique................................................................. 69

Objectives of the Interview..................................................................................................................... 69

Factors Affecting the Use of Interviews.................................................................................................... 70

Types and Formats of Interviews: In-Person, Telephone, Online................................................................. 70

Open-ended Question Format.......................................................................................................... 71

Fill-in-the-Blank Question Format................................................................................................... 71

Binary Question Format................................................................................................................. 72

Scaled-Response Question Format................................................................................................... 72

Unscaled-Response Question Format................................................................................................ 73

Where to Conduct Interviews.................................................................................................................. 74

Residence...................................................................................................................................... 75

Street........................................................................................................................................... 75

Mall............................................................................................................................................. 75

Venue........................................................................................................................................... 75

Office for Interviews...................................................................................................................... 75

The Interviewer’s Role........................................................................................................................... 75

Training the Interviewer................................................................................................................. 77

Conducting the Interview........................................................................................................................ 77

Advantages of the Interview Method........................................................................................................ 78

Disadvantages of the Interview Method.................................................................................................... 78

Increased Cost............................................................................................................................... 78

Increased Time.............................................................................................................................. 78

Decreased Sample Size................................................................................................................... 78

Increased Organization Time........................................................................................................... 78

Geographic Limitations.................................................................................................................. 78

Summary.............................................................................................................................................. 78

Chapter 6—Focus Group Research................................................................................. 81

The Nature of Focus Groups as a Qualitative Research Technique in Sport Management................................ 83

Objectives of Focus Group Research................................................................................................ 83

Types of Focus Groups................................................................................................................... 84

Stand-Alone Method.............................................................................................................. 84

Survey Supplement................................................................................................................ 84

Multiple Method Design......................................................................................................... 84

Online Focus Group Methods.................................................................................................. 84

Selecting Focus Group Participants.................................................................................................. 85

Recruiting Focus Group Participants................................................................................................ 85

The Number of Groups or Sessions.................................................................................................. 85

A Place to Stage the Focus Group Session........................................................................................ 86

The Focus Group Moderator........................................................................................................... 86

The Focus Group Process................................................................................................................ 86

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Focus Group Method of Research....................................................... 89

A Focus Group Case in Sport Management............................................................................................... 89

Summary.............................................................................................................................................. 90

 

Chapter 7—Observation Research................................................................................... 93

The Nature of Observation...................................................................................................................... 95

Characteristics of Observation as a Research Data Collection Technique............................................... 95

Advantages and Disadvantages........................................................................................................ 95

Objectives of Observation....................................................................................................................... 97

Capturing Human Behavior in Real Time......................................................................................... 97

Providing Visual Description.......................................................................................................... 97

Providing Exploratory Information.................................................................................................. 98

Conditions for Using Observations........................................................................................................... 98

Problem Itself............................................................................................................................... 98

Researcher’s Skills and Characteristics............................................................................................. 98

Characteristics of the Subjects......................................................................................................... 98

Types of Observation............................................................................................................................. 99

Participant and Nonparticipant Observation..................................................................................... 100

Obtrusive and Unobtrusive Observation.......................................................................................... 100

Observation in Natural or Contrived Settings.................................................................................. 101

Disguised and Non-disguised Observation....................................................................................... 101

Structured and Unstructured Observation........................................................................................ 101

Direct and Indirect Observation..................................................................................................... 101

Designing and Conducting an Observational Study.................................................................................. 101

Definition of Observational Problems and Variables........................................................................ 101

Selecting an Observation Method................................................................................................... 102

Training Observers....................................................................................................................... 103

Conducting and Recording Observation.......................................................................................... 103

Interpreting the Results of Observation........................................................................................... 103

Ethnography and Observation................................................................................................................ 103

Using Ethnography Research Techniques in Sport Management: A Case Analysis........................................ 104

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 104

Chapter 8—Secondary Data.............................................................................................................................. 107

The Nature of Secondary Data in Sport Management Research.................................................................. 109

Sources of Secondary Data.................................................................................................................... 111

Internal Records of and Data Released by a Public Organization........................................................ 113

Internal Data Released by a Private Trade Organization.................................................................... 113

Internal Data from a Private Firm.................................................................................................. 114

Data from Previous Surveys.......................................................................................................... 114

Previously Published Research....................................................................................................... 114

Publications Released by Government Agencies............................................................................... 114

Advantages of Secondary Data.............................................................................................................. 114

Saving Time and Money............................................................................................................... 114

Better Research Design................................................................................................................. 115

Availability................................................................................................................................. 115

Limitations of Secondary Data............................................................................................................... 115

Differences in Definitions............................................................................................................. 115

Lack of Availability..................................................................................................................... 115

Lack of Accuracy......................................................................................................................... 115

 

Age of Secondary Data................................................................................................................. 116

Process of Secondary Data Research....................................................................................................... 116

Defining the Data Needed............................................................................................................. 116

Locating the Data......................................................................................................................... 116

Evaluating the Data...................................................................................................................... 116

Gathering and Verifying the Data.................................................................................................. 117

A Case in Sport Management Research Using Secondary Data.................................................................. 117

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 117

Chapter 9—Survey Research............................................................................................ 121

The Nature of Survey Research: An Introduction..................................................................................... 123

Worldwide and Local Work to Improve Survey Methods.................................................................. 124

What Is a Survey?........................................................................................................................ 124

Types of Survey Research Techniques.................................................................................................... 126

The Interview as a Survey Technique............................................................................................. 126

The Telephone Interview Technique....................................................................................... 127

The Personal Interview Technique.......................................................................................... 128

Self-administered Survey Technique.............................................................................................. 128

Mail Surveys....................................................................................................................... 128

Respondent Self-selected Surveys.......................................................................................... 130

Surveys Administered to a Group.......................................................................................... 131

Online Surveys.................................................................................................................... 131

Factors Affecting the Choice of Particular Survey Methods...................................................................... 132

Population Issues......................................................................................................................... 132

Sampling Issues........................................................................................................................... 132

Content Issues.............................................................................................................................. 132

Bias Issues................................................................................................................................... 133

Administrative Issues.................................................................................................................... 133

Types of Errors in Survey Research....................................................................................................... 133

Sampling Errors.......................................................................................................................... 133

Nonresponse Error....................................................................................................................... 134

Response Error............................................................................................................................ 134

Designing Survey Research................................................................................................................... 135

A Survey Research Case in Sport Management........................................................................................ 135

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 135

Chapter 10—Experimental Research........................................................................... 139

Nature of Experimental Research........................................................................................................... 141

Experimentation: Basic Issues................................................................................................................ 141

Experimental Validity.......................................................................................................................... 142

Internal Validity Defined.............................................................................................................. 142

Factors That Jeopardize Internal Validity........................................................................................ 143

External Validity Defined............................................................................................................. 144

Factors That Jeopardize External Validity....................................................................................... 145

Selected Experimental Designs.............................................................................................................. 145

Three Preexperimental Designs...................................................................................................... 146

 

The One-Shot Case Study..................................................................................................... 146

One-Group Pretest and Posttest Design................................................................................... 146

The Static Group Comparison................................................................................................ 147

Three True Experimental Designs.................................................................................................. 147

The Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design.............................................................................. 148

The Posttest-Only Control Group Design................................................................................ 149

The Soloman Four-Group Design.......................................................................................... 149

Quasi-Experimental Designs.......................................................................................................... 149

Time-Series Design.............................................................................................................. 150

Multiple Time-Series Design................................................................................................. 150

Nonequivalent Control Group Design..................................................................................... 150

An Example of Experimental Research in Sport Management................................................................... 151

Why Are Experiments Not Used More Often in Sport Management Research?............................................ 152

Ethical Issues in Experimental Research................................................................................................. 152

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 152

Chapter 11—Ethics in Sport Management Research

and Publications...................................................................................................................... 155

The Nature and Scope of Ethics............................................................................................................. 157

Philosophical Paradigms of Ethical Research................................................................................... 157

Historical Events Influencing the Development of Research Practices of Human Subjects.................... 158

The Development of Ethical Codes of Conduct for Research on Human Subjects................................ 158

The Nuremberg Codes.......................................................................................................... 158

The Helsinki Declaration of 1964........................................................................................... 159

The Belmont Report............................................................................................................. 159

A Review of Ethical Principles.............................................................................................................. 160

Autonomy................................................................................................................................... 160

Beneficence................................................................................................................................. 160

Nonmaleficence........................................................................................................................... 160

Justice........................................................................................................................................ 160

Ways to Ensure That Research Is Ethical................................................................................................ 160

Following the Guidelines of Professional Associations..................................................................... 160

Obtaining Institutional Review Board Approval............................................................................... 161

Guidelines and Procedures for Protecting Human Rights in Sport Management Research............................. 163

Assurance of Protecting Study Participants from Harm.................................................................... 163

Assurance of Protecting the Study Participant’s Rights of Confidentiality........................................... 163

Assurance of Protecting the Study Participant’s Rights of Self-Determination..................................... 163

Assurance of Protecting the Study Participant’s Rights of Full Disclosure.......................................... 164

Debriefing the Participants about the Results of a Study..................................................................... 164

Assurance of Protecting the Study Participant’s Rights of Anonymity................................................ 164

Assurance of Protecting the Study Participant’s Rights to Volunteer.................................................. 164

Assurance of Protecting the Study Participant’s Rights of Privacy..................................................... 164

Assurance of Portecting the Study Participant’s Rights of Withdrawal............................................... 164

Obtaining Informed Consent................................................................................................................. 165

An Example of IRB Approval in Sport Management Studies.................................................................... 167

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 168

 

Chapter 12—Measurement and Scaling

in Sport Management Studies......................................................................................... 169

Classical Levels of Measurement............................................................................................................ 173

The Nominal Level of Measurement.............................................................................................. 173

The Ordinal Level of Measurement............................................................................................... 174

The Interval Level of Measurement............................................................................................... 175

The Ratio Level of Measurement.................................................................................................... 175

Measurement Criteria in Sport Management Research............................................................................. 175

Major Dimensions of Instrument Reliability................................................................................... 176

Nature of Reliability............................................................................................................ 176

Interpretation of Reliability Coefficient Correlation................................................................ 177

Commonly Used Correlation Indexes..................................................................................... 177

Reliability as Stability.......................................................................................................... 177

Reliability as Equivalence..................................................................................................... 177

Internal Consistency............................................................................................................. 178

Validity as a Measurement Criterion in Sport Management Research................................................. 178

Judgment Validity............................................................................................................... 180

Criterion-related Validity..................................................................................................... 181

Construct-related Validity.................................................................................................... 182

Relationships between Reliability and Validity........................................................................................ 183

A Case in Sport Management................................................................................................................ 183

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 184

Chapter 13—Attitude Measurement.......................................................................... 187

Nature of Attitude............................................................................................................................... 189

Components of Attitude............................................................................................................... 189

The Cognitive Component of Attitude................................................................................... 190

The Affective Component of Attitude..................................................................................... 190

The Behavioral Component of Attitude.................................................................................. 190

Measurement Techniques in Attitude Research................................................................................ 190

Rating................................................................................................................................. 190

Ranking.............................................................................................................................. 191

Techniques of Attitude Measurement—The Affective Component.............................................................. 191

Non-comparative Scales............................................................................................................... 191

Category Scales................................................................................................................... 191

Graphic Rating Scales.......................................................................................................... 194

Semantic Differential Scale................................................................................................... 195

The Likert Scale.................................................................................................................. 196

The Staple Scale.................................................................................................................. 198

Comparative Scales...................................................................................................................... 199

Rank-order Scales................................................................................................................ 199

The Paired Comparison Scale................................................................................................ 199

The Constant Sum Scale....................................................................................................... 199

Techniques of Attitude Measurement—Behavioral Component................................................................. 200

Selection of an Attitude Measurement Scale............................................................................................ 200

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 203

 

Chapter 14—Questionnaire Design............................................................................... 205

The Questionnaire Development Process................................................................................................. 207

Defining the Objectives of the Survey Research............................................................................... 208

Determining the Formats of Questioning........................................................................................ 208

Open-ended Questions.......................................................................................................... 209

Closed-ended Questions........................................................................................................ 209

Writing the Questions................................................................................................................... 210

Question and Answer Choice Order................................................................................................ 214

Dealing with “Don’t Know” or “Not Applicable” Answer Choices..................................................... 215

Reviewing the Questionnaire......................................................................................................... 216

Pretesting the Questionnaire.......................................................................................................... 216

Finalizing the Questionnaire.......................................................................................................... 217

Other Practical Issues Related to Questionnaire Design............................................................................. 217

How Long Should the Questionnaire Be?........................................................................................ 217

The Order of the Questions........................................................................................................... 217

Ways to Increase the Response Rate............................................................................................... 218

The Layout of a Questionnaire....................................................................................................... 219

Tips for Designing Web-based Questionnaires................................................................................. 220

Web Questionnaire Design.................................................................................................... 220

Online Survey Software........................................................................................................ 220

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 222

Chapter 15—Sampling Methods and Procedures

in Sport Management Research...................................................................................... 229

Nature of Population and Samples......................................................................................................... 231

Basic Approaches to Sampling............................................................................................................... 233

Nonprobability Sampling.............................................................................................................. 233

Probability Sampling.................................................................................................................... 233

Convenience Sampling................................................................................................................. 233

Quota Sampling........................................................................................................................... 234

Purposive or Judgmental Sampling................................................................................................ 234

Probability Sampling Procedures........................................................................................................... 234

Simple Random Sampling............................................................................................................. 235

Stratified Random Sampling......................................................................................................... 236

Systematic Random Sampling....................................................................................................... 236

Random Cluster Sampling............................................................................................................. 237

Determining the Sample Size................................................................................................................ 237

Appropriateness of Sampling Design: Practical Pointers........................................................................... 238

The Sampling Process........................................................................................................................... 238

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 238

Chapter 16—Data Editing, Coding, and Transforming....................................... 243

An Overview of the Stages of Data Preparation and Analysis.................................................................... 245

Validiting.................................................................................................................................... 245

Editing....................................................................................................................................... 245

 

Legibility of Entries............................................................................................................. 246

Completeness of Entries........................................................................................................ 246

Consistency of Entries.......................................................................................................... 246

Accuracy of Entries.............................................................................................................. 246

Missing by Logic................................................................................................................. 246

Missing by Design................................................................................................................ 246

Item Omission..................................................................................................................... 247

Refusal to Respond............................................................................................................... 247

Don’t Know........................................................................................................................ 247

Inadequate Response............................................................................................................. 248

Coding........................................................................................................................................ 251

Data Entry and Analysis............................................................................................................... 251

Using Content Analysis on Coding Open-ended Questions........................................................................ 252

Steps to Execute a Content Analysis............................................................................................... 253

Step 1: Determination of Objectives....................................................................................... 253

Step 2: Definition of Terms of Interest................................................................................... 253

Step 3: Identification of the Unit of Analysis.......................................................................... 254

Step 4: Selection of a Sampling Plan...................................................................................... 254

Step 5: Data Recording and Analysis...................................................................................... 254

Advantages and Disadvantages of Content Analysis.......................................................................... 254

A Content Analysis Case............................................................................................................... 254

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 255

Chapter 17—Introduction to Statistical Data Analysis

in Sport Management Research...................................................................................... 259

Nature of Statistical Analysis................................................................................................................. 261

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics................................................................................. 261

Parametric Statistics and Nonparametric Statistics............................................................................ 262

Independent and Dependent Variables.................................................................................................... 262

Defining the Independent and Dependent Variables for Non-experimental Designs.............................. 264

The Nature and Scope of Hypothesis and Hypothesis Testing.................................................................... 265

The Nature and Scope of Research Questions.......................................................................................... 267

Difference Questions.................................................................................................................... 267

Relationship Questions.................................................................................................................. 267

The Concept of Statistical Significance................................................................................................... 268

An Understanding of Type I and Type II Errors........................................................................................ 269

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 270

Chapter 18—Descriptive Statistics in Sport

Management Research......................................................................................................... 273

Major Approaches for Presenting and Measuring Relationship of Descriptive Statistical Data....................... 275

Describing Statistical Data by Frequency Distributions..................................................................... 275

Describing Data by Graphic Presentations....................................................................................... 277

Bar Graph........................................................................................................................... 277

Histogram........................................................................................................................... 278

 

Frequency Polygon.............................................................................................................. 278

Pie Chart............................................................................................................................. 278

Describing Data by Measures of Central Tendency........................................................................... 279

Mean.................................................................................................................................. 279

Median............................................................................................................................... 280

Mode.................................................................................................................................. 280

Describing Data by Measures of Variability.................................................................................... 280

Range................................................................................................................................. 280

Variance............................................................................................................................. 280

Standard Deviation............................................................................................................... 280

Describing Data by Measures of Relative Proportion........................................................................ 281

Percentile............................................................................................................................ 281

Percentile Range.................................................................................................................. 281

Measuring Relationships of Data by Correlational Statistical Techniques.................................................... 281

Correlational Coefficients............................................................................................................. 282

Interpretation of Correlation Coefficients in Sport Management Research................................... 282

Statistical Techniques for Determining Correlations......................................................................... 283

The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation............................................................................... 283

Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation....................................................................................... 283

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 284

Chapter 19—Statistical Testing of Differences.............................................. 289

Parametric Statistical Techniques........................................................................................................... 291

Ways to Subdivide Parametric Statistical Techniques....................................................................... 291

The T-test as a Parametric Statistical Technique............................................................................... 292

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) as a Parametric Statistical Technique................................................ 294

One-way ANOVA....................................................................................................................................................... 294

Two-way ANOVA................................................................................................................ 295

Post Hoc Tests of Statistical Significance for ANOVA.............................................................................................. 295

Z-test.......................................................................................................................................... 295

Nonparametric Statistical Techniques..................................................................................................... 296

Common Nonparametric Techniques.............................................................................................. 296

Chi Square (c2) as a Nonparametric Statistical Technique.................................................................. 296

Mann-Whitney U-test as a Nonparametric Statistical Technique......................................................... 299

Kruskal-Wallis Test as a Nonparametric Statistical Technique............................................................ 300

Fisher’s Exact Test as a Nonparametric Statistical Technique.............................................................. 301

Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test............................................................................................................................................. 301

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 302

Chapter 20—Multivariate Data Analysis...................................................................... 305

Classification of Multivariate Analysis Techniques................................................................................... 307

Techniques of Dependence Analysis....................................................................................................... 307

Multiple Regression Analysis......................................................................................................... 309

Logistic Regression Analysis................................................................................................. 309

Hierarchical Linear Regression Analysis................................................................................. 310

Discriminate Analysis........................................................................................................... 311

 

MANOVA.................................................................................................................................. 312

Conjoint Analysis......................................................................................................................... 313

Techniques of Interdependence Analysis................................................................................................. 313

Cluster Analysis........................................................................................................................... 313

K-means Clustering.............................................................................................................. 314

Two-step Clustering.............................................................................................................. 315

Factor Analysis............................................................................................................................ 315

Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)........................................................................................ 317

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)..................................................................................... 317

A Case Using Multivariate Analysis Techniques in Sport Management Research.......................................... 318

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 319

Chapter 21—Communicating Research Results:

Written Report and Oral Presentations....................................................................... 323

Communicating Research Results........................................................................................................... 325

Factors Affecting the Selection of a Communication Method............................................................ 325

Types of Reports.......................................................................................................................... 326

Briefing.............................................................................................................................. 327

Short Report........................................................................................................................ 327

Long Report........................................................................................................................ 328

Categories of Written Reports........................................................................................................ 328

Components of the Research Report....................................................................................................... 328

Preface/Foreword......................................................................................................................... 329

Cover Letter................................................................................................................................ 329

Title Page.................................................................................................................................... 329

Executive Summary..................................................................................................................... 329

Abstract...................................................................................................................................... 330

Introduction................................................................................................................................ 332

Statement of Problem........................................................................................................... 332

Purpose of Research............................................................................................................. 332

Research Objectives.............................................................................................................. 332

Review of Literature..................................................................................................................... 332

Exploration for Information.................................................................................................. 332

Analysis of Existing Literature.............................................................................................. 333

Methodology............................................................................................................................... 333

Sampling Design or Subjects................................................................................................. 333

Research Design................................................................................................................... 333

Data Collection Method........................................................................................................ 333

Data Analysis Method........................................................................................................... 334

Limitations.......................................................................................................................... 334

The Concluding Section................................................................................................................ 334

Findings/Results................................................................................................................... 334

Conclusions and Discussion................................................................................................... 334

Recommendations................................................................................................................ 334

References................................................................................................................................... 335

Tables, Figures, and Charts........................................................................................................... 335

 

Appendix/Exhibits....................................................................................................................... 335

Thesis and Dissertation Format versus Journal Article or Business Report Format....................................... 335

Preparing Poster and Oral Presentations.................................................................................................. 335

The Poster Presentation Report...................................................................................................... 335

The Oral Presentation................................................................................................................... 335

Preparation of the Oral Presentation....................................................................................... 336

Delivery and Performance..................................................................................................... 336

Effective Presentation with Graphics: Tables, Charts, Figures, and More.................................................... 336

Text Presentation.......................................................................................................................... 336

Tables, Charts, and Figures........................................................................................................... 337

Successful Presentation with Bias-Free Language..................................................................................... 339

An Introduction to Writing Style Handbooks.......................................................................................... 339

The American Psychological Association Publication Guidelines....................................................... 339

The MLA Style of Writing............................................................................................................ 340

The Chicago Manual of Style........................................................................................................ 341

Summary............................................................................................................................................ 342