Sponsorship for Sport Managers

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Securing financial resources through sponsorships is a prominent element in the job descriptions of many sport managers and the importance of that task has increased exponentially in recent years. Sponsorship for Sport Managers provides readers with an understanding of how companies use sponsorship in their marketing programs and how sport managers can leverage that knowledge into greater sponsorship opportunities.

Widely acclaimed author John Crompton masterfully integrates the conceptual with the applied as Sponsorship for Sport Managers helps readers:

• understand how companies use sponsorship in their marketing programs,
• be responsive to sponsors' needs,
• charge an equitable fee for providing sponsors with leveraging opportunities,
• be active partners with the sponsors to help them meet their objectives, and
• measure the extent to which the objectives were accomplished.

Contents
Preface  •  xiii
Chapter 1 •  The Changing Role of Sport Sponsorship. 1
Chapter 2 •   Building Brand Equity: Increasing Brand Awareness
and Enhancing Brand Image 29
Chapter 3 •  Other Benefit Opportunities from a Sponsorship 63
Chapter 4 •  Naming Rights Sponsorships 85
Chapter 5 •   Corporate Decisions Associated
with Sponsorship Partnerships 113
Chapter 6 •  Ambush Marketing 145
Chapter 7 •   Potential Negative Outcomes from Sponsorship
for a Sport Property 169
Chapter 8 •   Potential Negative Outcomes from Sponsorship
for a Company 191
Chapter 9 •  The Process of Soliciting Corporate Sponsorships 213
Chapter 10 •  Measuring the Impact of Sponsorships 253
Index  •  277
About the Author  •  287
Detailed Contents
CHAPTER 1: The Changing Role of Sport Sponsorship 1
Differentiating Sponsorships from Donations 1
Exchange Theory 4
Evolution of Sport Sponsorships 7
Chronological Evolution 7
Evolution of the Conceptualization of Sponsorship’s Role 13
Accelerating Ubiquity 15
Sources of sponsorship Momentum 19
The Special Strength of Sponsorship 23
Summary 26
Endnotes 27
CHAPTER 2: Building Brand Equity:
Increasing Brand Awareness and Enhancing Brand Image 29
The Brand Equity Concept 29
Processing New Relationship Information 32
How Memory Works 32
The Dual Roles of Brand Awareness 34
The Mediating Influence of Relevancy and Affective Intensity 39
Congruency Classification 40
The Role of Balance Theory 40
Types of Sport Property/Brand Congruency 43
Does Congruency Facilitate the Most Effective Image Transfer? 45
Primary Strategies for Resolving Moderate Incongruity 47
Articulation 47
Change the Attribution of Motives 49
Substantial Investment 49
Contexts in Which Brand Image is a Priority 50
Fortuitous Image Transfer From Juxtaposition of Sponsors 57
Summary 57
Endnotes 59
Detailed Table of Contents
CHAPTER 3: Other Benefit Opportunities from a Sponsorship 63
Relating Sponsorship Opportunities to the Purchase Decision 64
Demonstration Platform 66
Hospitality 68
Product Trial and Sales Opportunities 75
Enhancing Employee Morale 79
Summary 81
Endnotes 82
CHAPTER 4: Naming Rights Sponsorships 85
Why Companies Buy Naming Rights 86
The Growing Value of Naming Rights Agreements 88
Challenges Ahead 93
Shirt and Team Naming Rights 96
College Venue Sponsorships 101
Municipal and High School Sponsorships 103
The Potential for Controversy 106
Summary 108
Endnotes 110
CHAPTER 5: Corporate Decisions Associated
With Sponsorship Partnerships 113
Sponsorship Objectives 113
The Fit Between a Sport Property and a Sponsor’s Brand 116
Congruency of Target Markets 118
Length of Commitment 122
Reasons for Ending the Relationship 123
Leveraging the Sponsorship Platform 126
Nonactivational Leveraging 127
Activational Leveraging 131
Summary 140
Endnotes 142
CHAPTER 6: Ambush Marketing 145
Is Ambushing Ethical? 147
Ambush Strategies 149
Emerging Internet Ambush Strategies 157
Strategies to Counter Ambushing 158
Legal Counter-Strategies 158
Market Counter-Strategies 164
Summary 166
Endnotes 167
Detailed Table of Contents xi
CHAPTER 7: Potential Negative Outcomes
from Sponsorship for a Sport Property 169
Changes in a Sport’s Format or Rules 169
Undue Influence by Sponsors 170
Over-Commercialization 171
Negative Connotations or Controversies Associated with Sponsors 172
Tobacco 174
Alcohol 175
Gambling 180
Products High in Fat, Salt, or Sugar (HFSS) 183
Other Concerns Relating to Corporate Responsibility 184
Summary 187
Endnotes 187
CHAPTER 8: Potential Negative Outcomes
from Sponsorship for a Company 191
Liability Exposure 192
Insensitivity to User Sentiment 192
Insensitivity to Social Mores 196
Stakeholder Opposition 198
Poor Presentation of the Event 199
Poor Performance 200
Association with Disreputable Behavior 202
Trauma to Performers 206
American Football and CTE 206
Implications for Football and Sponsors 208
Summary 210
Endnotes 211
CHAPTER 9: The Process of Soliciting Corporate Sponsorships 213
Organizing to Sell Sponsorships 215
Forming an Internal Marketing Team 215
Hiring an External Agency 216
A Hybrid Approach 217
Inventory 217
Developing a Set of Potential Company Investors 218
Criteria Used by Companies to Screen Proposals 222
Customizing Proposals 225
Preparation of a Proposal 229
Preparation for the Initial Meeting 230
Facilitating Discussion 232
Pricing Sponsorships 234
Handling Rejections 239
xii Detailed Table of Contents
The Contract 240
Working Together to Make it Happen 240
Post-Event Follow-Up 247
Summary 249
Endnotes 251
CHAPTER 10: Measuring the Impact of Sponsorship 253
A Reluctance to Evaluate 253
Stages in the Evaluation Process 254
Measures of Sponsorship Outcomes 257
Cognitive Measures 257
Exposure 258
The Measurement Process 259
The Failings of Exposure Measures 260
Awareness 263
Measuring Affect: The Emotional Connection 266
Measuring Behavioral Outcomes 270
Summary 274
Endnotes 276