The International Olympic Committee (IOC) sent shock waves through the Olympic advertising and sponsorship community when it announced in February 2015 that it was relaxing Rule 40 of the Olympic Charter to allow generic (non-Olympic themed) advertising featuring athletes during the Rio 2016 Games (Mackay, 2015). According to the IOC, the purpose of the Rule is to preserve the unique nature of the Games by preventing over-commercialization and to keep the focus on the athletes’ performance (International Olympic Committee, n.d.). Notably, while the IOC does not expressly reference ambush...Read more

Stefan Kesenne

In this paper, we derive, based on a simple microeconomic model, under what conditions free-TV can more profitable than pay-TV in sports broadcasting. The most important factors here are the level, not the elasticity, of the demand for televised sports, as well as the advertisers’ willingness to pay. Also the spectators’ aversion to interruptions for advertising can play a role.Read more

George B. Cunningham
E. Nicole Melton

Drawing from signaling theory and creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of advertising inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals on consumers’ intentions to join a fitness club. The authors also considered the moderating effects of consumer gender and social dominance orientation. Participants (N = 203) took part in an experiment where they reviewed fitness club advertisements and then responded to a questionnaire. Persons who viewed LGBT inclusive advertisements were more likely to believe the club was diverse and...Read more

Aron Levin
Joe Cobbs
Fred Beasley
Chris Manolis

Advertising, sponsorships, and other marketing communications are commonplace in the contemporary world of sports. Are sports fans irritated and annoyed by this commercial bombardment or are they accepting of the role of sports advertising? This study investigates consumers’ perceptions of commercial messages during televised sporting events. The results indicate that fans of two of the most popular US sports (NFL and NASCAR) generally have high levels of sport commercial acceptance (SCA) in televised broadcasts. NASCAR fans—particularly those highly identified with the sport—are the most...Read more

Brody James Ruihley
Rodney C. Runyan
Karen E. Lear

The use of sport celebrities in advertising campaigns is an important aspect in marketing to a target market of sport fans. With many star athletes becoming increasingly involved in negative off-field issues, it is questioned whether ads featuring athletes have decreased over time. This study replicates, extends, and breaks new ground on the topic of sport celebrities in advertising. Using a content analysis, the study replicates the work of Stone, Joseph, and Jones (2003). By replicating the Stone et al. content analysis, we provide validation for the earlier work, as generally called for...Read more

Karen E. Danylchuk
Eric MacIntosh

This study’s primary purpose was to examine the opinions of consumers toward the appropriateness of food and non-alcoholic beverage sponsorships of sporting events in relation to other products. Research of this nature is particularly timely in light of the current obesity issue because many food and beverage products contribute to the obesity problem. Phase one involved a written survey (N = 253) whereas phase two involved two focus groups (N = 12). Attitudes toward food and non-alcoholic beverage sponsorships of sporting events were more favorable than alcohol sponsorships, followed by...Read more

Jacquelyn Cuneen
Nancy E. Spencer
Sally R. Ross
Artemisia Apostolopoulou

This study presents a perspective on advertisements featuring female drivers that appeared in the official Indianapolis 500 programs from 1977 to 2006. Specifically, content analysis was used to track the succession of female drivers’ depictions in the programs over the 29-year period from Janet Guthrie’s rookie year to Danica Patrick’s second race appearance. Ads were analyzed for pose, connotation, role portrayal, and camera angle. Descriptive statistics indicated that prior to 2003, the drivers’ (Guthrie, Lyn St. James, Sarah Fisher, and Patrick) ad depictions were most often strong and...Read more

Scott A. Jones
Tracy A. Suter

The purpose of this exploratory research was to gain a greater understanding of the importance consumers assign to the product attributes of one of the most visible relationship marketing programs: affinity credit cards. Drawing on relationship marketing, symbolic consumption, and social identity, the authors explore the importance of attributes when choosing an affinity credit card. Three studies at different universities determined the ranked importance to student consumers of the background logo, the beneficiary, attributes such as annual fees and interest rates, and the financial...Read more

Anita M. Moorman

Celebrity endorsements in the sport industry continue to increase both in number and value. For example, sport celebrities ascribe their names to such products as soap, soda, cars, underwear, financial planning services, internet services, bubble gum, and a host of sport specific products (shoes, apparel, sports equipment, etc.). These product endorsements can earn a professional athlete substantial sums of money, and for many professional athletes they can actually earn more from endorsements than their player salaries or earnings. However, endorsements are a form of advertising subject...Read more

Steve McKelvey
Adam Epstein

The case of Robert Donchez lends new meaning to the phrase “he’s such a character.?Donchez v. Coors Brewing Company, 392 F.3d 1211 (10th Cir. 2004). In 1999, Donchez, a Colorado resident and popular vendor at Colorado sporting events, sued Coors Brewing Company and its advertising agency, Foote, Cone & Belding (FCB), claiming that the defendants had stolen his persona. Donchez, also known as “Bob the Beerman,?maintained that the defendants had utilized, without authorization and without compensation, his arguably unique beer-vending “Beerman?character in a national advertising campaign...Read more

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