Henry Wear
Dorothy Rodgers Collins
and Bob Heere

When the Charlotte Bobcats became the Charlotte Hornets at the beginning of the 2014 NBA season, the team became the first in history to rebrand itself with a moniker previously used and recently dropped by another NBA franchise. Despite being bound by NBA branding and merchandising rules, the organization was able to re-imagine the original Hornets brand to create a new distinct brand identity that pushed the organization into the future while still honoring the past. The franchise employed a variety of creative brand communication techniques, including sending Hugo the Hornet mascot door...Read more

Barbara Osborne

At the intersection of personal branding and capitalism is the legal concept of a right of publicity. Since the Supreme Court first recognized this right in Zacchini v. Scripps-Howard Broadcasting Company in 1977, it is commonly assumed that individuals have a legal interest in protecting their name, image, and likeness from unauthorized commercial use. However, it is important to note there is no common law or statutory right of publicity on the federal level—this is a matter determined by state law. The common law right of publicity (based on decisions of the various...Read more

Todd C. Koesters
Khalid Ballouli
Matthew J. Bernthal
and Sandy Hansell

Elliott had spent the previous few weeks in the southeastern United States consulting with different universities on behalf of Red Bull concerning a national promotion titled “the Red Bulletin,” a brand campaign designed to increase brand awareness and brand equity of Red Bull among university students. This particular campaign involved the usage of samples, branded leaflets, magazine distribution, and an interactive campus tour, all signifing Red Bull’s brand identity to university students. Utilizing research he had received from the GenNext Panel, a branded research and student insight...Read more

Patrick Walsh
Seungbum Lee

The introduction and management of brand extensions continues to represent a popular strategy for professional sport teams as they provide an additional touch point between the fans and the team, and have the ability to have a positive impact on revenue. While the introduction of extensions could lead to positive results for teams, if they fail they could potentially damage overall team brand equity. As such, it is important for sport managers to have a process that fills in the gaps from conceptualization to launch to ensure brand extension success and limit potential dilution to team...Read more

John Vincent
John S. Hill
Jason W. Lee

The career of David Beckham, celebrity soccer player, has had its highs and lows. But through it all, one thing has remained constant, David Beckham has rarely ventured out of the media or the public eye. For a decade, from his 1995 debut for Manchester United, his career went from strength to strength, his on-field brilliance matched only by his soaring marketing appeal in a sport that massively commercialized in the 1990s (Cashmore & Parker, 2003).Read more

John S. Clark
Artemisia Apostolopoulou
Scott Branvold
David Synowka

Dr. Susan Hofacre, Director of Athletics at Robert Morris University (RMU), walked out of Massey Hall toward her car after her weekly Friday meeting with the University President. Susan was feeling both excited and troubled due to this most recent conversation concerning the RMU athletic program’s role in the greater mission of the University. The prospect of using the athletic program to launch a comprehensive branding campaign for the University is one that Susan had wanted to pursue for many years, as she believed strongly that it would be an effective and efficient method for bringing...Read more

Harry H. Kwon
Hongbum Kim
Michael Mondello

Despite increased sales of sports team licensed merchandise, there is a lack of research examining the effect of the manufacturer brand on the sales of such products. This study examined whether manufacturers’ brand influenced sport consumers’ attitudes toward and purchase intentions of licensed apparel. Using information integration theory and classical conditioning, four different hypotheses were developed. The data were collected from 299 students (men = 201; women = 98). The questionnaire included attitude toward a manufacturer, attitude toward school athletic teams, attitude toward co...Read more

Stephen D. Ross
Hyejin Bang
Seungbum Lee

The present study uses a rigorous procedure to examine the applicability, validity, and reliability of the Team Brand Association Scale (TBAS) in the context of intercollegiate ice hockey. Results from a sample of 349 season ticket holders from an intercollegiate ice hockey team indicated that the TBAS instrument was indeed valid in the collegiate sport setting. Given the functionality of the TBAS in the area of intercollegiate sport, university athletic marketers should be actively assessing the associations pertaining to specific teams. Furthermore, through an understanding of team brand...Read more

Stephen D. Ross

The present study uses cluster analysis to identify segments of spectators based upon the brand associations held for a professional sport team. A secondary purpose is to identify potential similarities and differences among identified segments based upon demographic variables. Results from a sample of 662 ticket holders from a National Basketball Association (NBA) team indicated that the respondents could be segmented into two distinct groups based upon the perceptions of the sport brand. Results also indicated that the members of each spectator cluster could be further distinguished...Read more