Chulhwan Choi
T. Christopher Greenwell
Mary A. Hums
and Marion E. Hambrick

Screen golf, a virtual sport utilizing interactive simulators, has seen enormous growth in the Republic of Korea. This virtual sport removes some of the constraints consumers experience, keeping them away from playing golf at an outdoor course (e.g., cost and weather). This study explored how leisure constraints differ between screen golf and outdoor golf and identified differences in leisure constraints among diverse types of consumers. Based on a sample of 389 South Korean consumers, results indicated significant differences in leisure constraints between outdoor and virtual golf in cost...Read more

Todd C. Koesters
Khalid Ballouli
Matthew J. Bernthal
and Sandy Hansell

Elliott had spent the previous few weeks in the southeastern United States consulting with different universities on behalf of Red Bull concerning a national promotion titled “the Red Bulletin,” a brand campaign designed to increase brand awareness and brand equity of Red Bull among university students. This particular campaign involved the usage of samples, branded leaflets, magazine distribution, and an interactive campus tour, all signifing Red Bull’s brand identity to university students. Utilizing research he had received from the GenNext Panel, a branded research and student insight...Read more

Jason W. Lee
Matt Bernthal
Warren A. Whisenant
Susan Mullane

The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is a powerful force in the world of sport. Each year, fans flock to race tracks across the country to witness the thunderous sounds and incredible sight of cars racing at speeds often in excess of 180 miles per hour. It is a sport that has experienced phenomenal growth since its inception in 1947. While NASCAR was born in the Southeastern United States and has a uniquely Southern history, it now has tracks all across the country. However, it is a sport that for a number of reasons retains a stereotype as a “redneck,” “good ol’ boy...Read more