Joe Cobbs
Daniel Sparks
and B. David Tyler

Previous research on sports rivalry has emphasized fans’ social identity and the threat posed by rivals. Much of this scholarship is based on intercollegiate sports, where many fans, such as students and alumni, have a formally defined identity with the university. In this study, fans (N = 4,828) across five major professional leagues—Major League Baseball (MLB), Major League Soccer (MLS), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League (NHL)—are surveyed to compare their animosity toward rivals based on four variables: schadenfreude,...Read more

Quinn A. W. Keefer

Using binary variable and decomposition techniques on two distinct datasets, we analyze the effect of race on playing time for linebackers in the National Football League (NFL). We examine both the number of games started in a season and the probability of starting each individual game within a season. The results show black linebackers start approximately one additional game, or 16% more games, in a season than non-black players. Also, the probability of starting a specific game is four to eight percentage points greater for black linebackers. Previous research suggests black linebackers...Read more