Eric Brownlee
T. Christopher Greenwell
and Anita Moorman

One of the benefits of being an official sponsor is the right to use the term “official sponsor” to differentiate a company’s association with a property from other companies (non-sponsors). Official sponsors may pay a premium for those designations; however, there is uncertainty as to whether or not those designations are effective. This study utilizes scenarios simulating official Major League Baseball (MLB) team sponsorship, official MLB sponsorship, and no official association with MLB or the team to assess the effect of these statuses on purchase intentions. Results from a sample of...Read more

Jeeyoon Kim
Joon Ho Kang
Yu-Kyoum Kim

Mega sport events are believed to positively and significantly impact the host country’s destination image (from the tourism perspective) and country image (from the international marketing perspective). Focusing on the short-haul market, this study questioned the prevailing “optimism” and empirically examined the impact of hosting a mega sport event on the destination image and country image through a pre-post study design. The results presented a mixed (i.e., both positive and negative) impact on the two images, and patterns of image change varied according to sport involvement, media...Read more

Brendan Dwyer
Joris Drayer
Stephen L. Shapiro

When purchasing tickets in advance, sports consumers are often faced with uncertainty. Most notably, in today’s real-time environment, it can be challenging for consumers to determine how ticket prices and seat availability will change over time. Guided by the generic advanced-booking decision model, the current study investigated the role of time, ticket source (primary or secondary market), and team identification in advanced ticket purchasing by exploring a consumer’s perceptions of ticket availability and finding a lower price. The results suggest the perceived likelihood of ticket...Read more

Andrea N. Eagleman
Brian D. Krohn

In light of the economic recession, the sport of running has remained strong in the United States, experiencing growth in participation, number of races, and apparel sales (Running USA, 2010). Because this sport grew during a period of otherwise economic decline, and because sponsors are often vital to the existence of road races, the researchers sought to examine sponsor recognition, attitudes toward sponsors, and purchase intentions of road race series participants and to examine differences in these variables based on demographics, level of identification with the series, and usage of...Read more

Gi-Yong Koo
Brody J. Ruihley
Stephen W. Dittmore

The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the influence athletic performance has on the elements of source credibility, and (2) to investigate its impact on the causal relationships among consumers’ brand attitude, attitude toward the advertisement, and purchase intentions. A between-group experimental design was chosen to assess differences in the source credibility based on an athletic endorser’s on-field performance. Findings identified differences in the elements of source credibility based on an athlete endorser’s on-field performance, while the decomposition of the...Read more

Harry H. Kwon
Hongbum Kim
Michael Mondello

Despite increased sales of sports team licensed merchandise, there is a lack of research examining the effect of the manufacturer brand on the sales of such products. This study examined whether manufacturers’ brand influenced sport consumers’ attitudes toward and purchase intentions of licensed apparel. Using information integration theory and classical conditioning, four different hypotheses were developed. The data were collected from 299 students (men = 201; women = 98). The questionnaire included attitude toward a manufacturer, attitude toward school athletic teams, attitude toward co...Read more

Windy Dees
Gregg Bennett
Jorge Villegas

Evaluating sponsorship activities at elite intercollegiate sporting events has become critical to determining sponsorship effectiveness and maximizing the relationships between athletic departments and their corporate partners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sponsorship of an elite intercollegiate football program by analyzing the effects of the constructs of attitude toward the sponsor, goodwill, and fan involvement on consumer purchase intentions. In this study (N=394), there were 52% males, 77% Caucasians, and 71% percent of the participants ranging from 18-24 years of...Read more

Kostas Alexandris
Elisabeth Tsaousi
Jeffrey James

The objective of this study was to test the degree to which three sponsorship outcomes—sponsor’s image, word-of-mouth, and purchase intentions—may be predicted by three attitudinal constructs: attitude toward the event, sport activity involvement (centrality and attraction), and beliefs about sponsorship. The data were collected from a Greek basketball all-star game. The results indicated that purchase intentions were significantly predicted by beliefs about sponsorship, attitudes toward the event, and the centrality dimension of involvement. The word-of-mouth and image outcomes were...Read more

David A. Tobar

This study examined personal characteristics (e.g., sport fandom, age, gender) and affective outcomes (e.g., mood, enjoyment) of Super Bowl XL television spectators. Purchase intentions of products marketed during the Super Bowl were also examined. The sample included college students (59 men; 22 women) and their parents (51 fathers; 60 mothers). Participants completed measures of sport fandom and mood before the Super Bowl, and measures of mood, enjoyment, and purchase intentions following the Super Bowl. Men and students reported higher sport fandom. Students reported more mood...Read more

Kimberly S. Miloch
Keith W. Lambrecht

As the nature and motivations of sponsors have evolved, sponsorship of grassroots and niche sport events has grown. The purpose of this research was to assess consumer awareness of sponsorship at a grassroots and niche sport event through an examination of recall and recognition rates and purchase intentions. Data were gathered using traditional methods of consumer awareness assessment. Recall and recognition rates in this study were comparable but somewhat lower than those noted in studies of Olympic sport or mega-sport events. Recall and recognition rates appeared to be influenced by...Read more