Kostas Alexandris
Elisabeth Tsaousi
Jeffrey James

The objective of this study was to test the degree to which three sponsorship outcomes—sponsor’s image, word-of-mouth, and purchase intentions—may be predicted by three attitudinal constructs: attitude toward the event, sport activity involvement (centrality and attraction), and beliefs about sponsorship. The data were collected from a Greek basketball all-star game. The results indicated that purchase intentions were significantly predicted by beliefs about sponsorship, attitudes toward the event, and the centrality dimension of involvement. The word-of-mouth and image outcomes were...Read more

Carlos Pestana Barros
Catarina de Barros
Abel Santos
Simon Chadwick

This paper examines the determinants of probability for sponsor brand recall at the Euro 2004 soccer tournament in Portugal. Using a sample of 1,000 people, a survey was administered in Portugal immediately after the tournament to ascertain the significant characteristics that influenced the aimed probability (e.g., age, income, education, perceptions of the event, perceptions of sponsors). Based on 676 usable responses, a random-parameter logit model (mixed logit) was used to deal with unobserved heterogeneity, together with a standard logit model which was also used to analyze the...Read more

Artemisia Apostolopoulou
John Clark
James M. Gladden

Following Super Bowl XXXVIII, which was held in Houston in 2004, criticism and controversy arose concerning the selection of talent as well as the execution of the event’s halftime show. Given the increasing emphasis and investment on the entertainment aspect of sporting events, this study set out to explore Super Bowl viewers?perceptions on a number of ancillary entertainment elements of the event, as well as those elements?relative importance to viewers?enjoyment of the broadcast. A computer-based survey was developed and administered to two different groups: a purchased list of Super...Read more

Jacquelyn Cuneen
Janet S. Fink

In order to compete with cities in more temperate climates and thus have a Super Bowl awarded to their city, the Detroit Host Committee, Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau, politicians, local government, and other agencies planned and staged a bid convincing National Football League owners that a cold climate was a perfect setting for a Super Bowl. This paper outlines the components of a hallmark bid, shows how Detroit’s bidding and planning made the city a prime site for one of the world’s largest events, and addresses some of the ultimate accomplishments of Detroit’s Super Bowl...Read more

Marijke Taks
Vassil Girginov
Robert Boucher

The recent hosting of Bowl XL in Detroit gave the adjacent Canadian city of Windsor, Ontario, the opportunity to ‘coattail market?the event and reap some obvious benefits. For a modest $250,000 investment, Windsor was billed as the co-host and the local media cooperated by providing very positive coverage of this ‘win win?arrangement. Using Hiller’s (1998) linkage model for analyzing the impact of mega sporting events, the authors use qualitative methods to determine the extent to which the city enjoyed tangible returns as a result of this unique co-hosting arrangement. On-site interviews...Read more

Kathy Babiak
Richard Wolfe

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown in importance to sport organizations as well as to the mega-events run by these organizations. This paper explores CSR initiatives related to Super Bowl XL in Detroit. Using Carroll’s (Carroll, 1979, 1999) framework of CSR, we outline some of the key community outreach efforts initiated by the NFL and the Super Bowl Host Committee, and further, we discuss the ways in which these efforts might help in building the NFL’s image as a professional sport league that takes its social responsibility seriously.Read more

Kimberly S. Miloch
Keith W. Lambrecht

As the nature and motivations of sponsors have evolved, sponsorship of grassroots and niche sport events has grown. The purpose of this research was to assess consumer awareness of sponsorship at a grassroots and niche sport event through an examination of recall and recognition rates and purchase intentions. Data were gathered using traditional methods of consumer awareness assessment. Recall and recognition rates in this study were comparable but somewhat lower than those noted in studies of Olympic sport or mega-sport events. Recall and recognition rates appeared to be influenced by...Read more

John Tower
Leo Jago
Margaret Deery

Certain constructs influence relationships within community organizations and the not-for-profit sport sector. This qualitative study identified influences on relationships and determinants of successful and unsuccessful partnerships and determined the application of 28 constructs derived from literature on relationship marketing, education partnerships, and health and community service partnerships. Results of interviews with 15 personnel from Australian sport, education, and health and community service agencies indicated that partnerships achieve goals that the individual partners could...Read more

Steve McKelvey

It was March 31, 2003, and the Coca-Cola Classic brand management team was excited about enjoying another Major League Baseball opening day at Turner Field against the visiting Montreal Expos. As the team drove out to Turner Field, most of the talk centered on the Atlanta Braves’ prospects for the upcoming season. Jill Smith, however, had her mind on football—specifically, the 2004 Super Bowl in Houston—only 10 months away. Although Coca-Cola was no longer the official soft drink sponsor of the National Football League—rival Pepsi-Cola had outbid Coca-Cola for those rights in 2002—Coca-...Read more

J. Andrew Choi
David K. Stotlar
S. Roger Park

Sporting events have increasingly become the epicenter of sponsorship or logo showcasing and the concept of sponsorship has changed the way sport marketers view sporting events ever so drastically. The amount of logo exposure at sporting venues determines the fine line between instant elation and intolerable anguish for sport marketers. Do consumers then actually notice the multitude of logos that the sponsors bombard them with at these sporting events? The purpose of this study is to investigate what an average spectator at a sporting event visually records in a two-hour span. The...Read more