Gregg Bennett
George B. Cunningham
Windy Dees

The purpose of this study was to assess the marketing communication activations of a professional tennis tournament. Results indicate that respondents were satisfied with the marketing communications activations chosen by managers and marketers of the event. For example, most spectators (77%) learned of the event from television, which was their preferred media for becoming aware of the tournament. In addition, most spectators (94.6%) believed that it was good for companies, and specifically those based in Houston or Texas, to sponsor the tournament. The spectators also indicated that such...Read more

Margaret Morrison
Daniel M. Haygood
Dean M. Krugman

This paper investigates auto racing sponsorships by cigarette manufacturers from 2000-2002 and builds on earlier work which found that by using event sponsorships tobacco companies enjoyed significant television exposure for popular cigarette brands. We examine cigarette sponsorship of televised motor events in an attempt to quantify this exposure in terms of time and monetary value. We document the first declines in total exposure time achieved by cigarette companies through these broadcasts, but concurrently identify increases in audiences for the races. Results indicate that cigarette...Read more

Stephanie Hughes
Matt Shank

The United States sports industry is a multi-billion dollar industry. Corporations attempt to curry favor with consumers by aligning their products and services with this popular industry through sports sponsorship and endorsement opportunities. The upside to this association is well-documented in the sports marketing literature. Less well known however, is the impact on corporate brands when a scandal erupts around an athletic endorser such as a team, coach, or player. Numerous sports scandals such as the recruiting scandal at the University of Colorado or the Kobe Bryant rape case raise...Read more

Peter Smolianov
David Shilbury

To determine how integrated TV advertising and event sponsorship should be best managed and evaluated, a theoretical framework derived from global exploratory research of academic literature and consulting reports was validated by 16 experts. To benchmark the current practices against the best practice integration methods, 12 campaigns, which had sponsored a televised event and placed advertisements during the broadcast of the event, were analyzed via case studies. The investigated competitions included the Wimbledon Tennis Tournament in London and the Olympic Games in Sydney. The examined...Read more

Thomas M. Hickman
Kathreine E. Lawrence
James C. Ward

Integrated marketing communications usage, in particular, corporate sport sponsorship in conjunction with the marketing mix, has continued to mount over the past several years as companies strive to advance brand awareness and improve corporate image with respect to target markets. The popular press suggests that sponsorship can function as a tool for internal marketing, which is defined as a managerial strategy designed to motivate and enable organizational members to adopt a customer orientation, or to meet the needs of external customers. We explored the relationship between sponsorship...Read more

Zhu Zhang
Doyeon Won
Donna L. Pastore

This study investigated the effects of college students' attitudes toward commercialization and their psychological attachment to an intercollegiate athletic program on their purchasing intentions of sponsors' products. The relationships between attitudes toward commercialization and psychological attachment were also examined. Data were collected from college students (N = 124) of a large Midwest University. A series of hierarchical regression analysis revealed that attitudes toward commercialization and psychological attachment together explained 28 percent of the variance in purchasing...Read more

Artemisia Apostolopoulou
Dimitra Papadimitriou

Given the increasing dependence of sport organizations and events on corporate sponsorship, this study set out to examine the motivations of the Grand National sponsors of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games and the objectives they sought to fulfill through their sponsorship. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven of the ten Grand National Olympic sponsors. Findings indicated that these companies?decision to join the National Sponsoring Program was not entirely business-driven; rather, the desire to support the national effort and a sense of obligation led most companies to enter...Read more

Nathan Tomasini
Chris Frye
David Stotlar

In NCAA Division I from 1997 to 2001, sponsorship revenue increased from $766,000 to $1.38 million per institution, an increase of 79%. Growth primarily occurred in Division I-A at a rate of 91%, while Divisions I-AA and I-AAA grew by 8.3% and 34.0%, respectively. During this period, no division experienced growth rates comparable to the accelerated rate that occurred in the entire sport industry (IEG, 2003).Read more

Anita M. Moorman

After being fined for wearing sponsor logos on their uniform in 2003, jockeys in the 2004 Kentucky Derby were allowed to wear such patches thanks to a court ruling.Read more

Ted B. Peetz
Janet B. Parks
Nancy E. Spence

This study explored the role of gender in the transfer of meaning from athlete endorser, to product, to purchase intentions for 150 sport management and kinesiology undergraduates. Most were 18-22-year-old (96%), European-American/White (91.3%), males (68%). Participants viewed photographs of Lance Armstrong, Mia Hamm, Michael Jordan, and Jackie Joyner-Kersee and were asked to identify and describe each athlete. Participants then indicated whether they considered each athlete an expert on products related to her/his sport and whether the athlete's endorsement would influence their purchase...Read more