Dennis Coates

This study adds to our knowledge of the effects of mega-events like Super Bowls and Major League Baseball All Star games by looking specifically at a long time-series of monthly sales tax revenues to assess the impact of these events on the host city’s revenue. The analysis indicates that sales tax revenues in Houston may be statistically significantly higher as a result of the Super Bowl by as much as $5 million over the time of the game and its preceding festivities. The MLB All-Star game has a much smaller effect on revenues, though possibly as much as $1 million in extra sales tax...Read more

Yongick Jeong
Hai Tran

Using data obtained via natural quasi-experiments across four Super Bowl games (2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006), we investigate the impact of pod (commercial break) position on advertising effectiveness in sport broadcasts. A series of multiple regression analyses was conducted by classifying pods into three categories based on their positions: quarter position, within-quarter position, and between-quarter position. The results support general primacy effects. The brands promoted during earlier quarters were significantly better recognized than those that appeared in later quarters in the...Read more

Artemisia Apostolopoulou
John Clark
James M. Gladden

Following Super Bowl XXXVIII, which was held in Houston in 2004, criticism and controversy arose concerning the selection of talent as well as the execution of the event’s halftime show. Given the increasing emphasis and investment on the entertainment aspect of sporting events, this study set out to explore Super Bowl viewers?perceptions on a number of ancillary entertainment elements of the event, as well as those elements?relative importance to viewers?enjoyment of the broadcast. A computer-based survey was developed and administered to two different groups: a purchased list of Super...Read more

Jacquelyn Cuneen
Janet S. Fink

In order to compete with cities in more temperate climates and thus have a Super Bowl awarded to their city, the Detroit Host Committee, Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau, politicians, local government, and other agencies planned and staged a bid convincing National Football League owners that a cold climate was a perfect setting for a Super Bowl. This paper outlines the components of a hallmark bid, shows how Detroit’s bidding and planning made the city a prime site for one of the world’s largest events, and addresses some of the ultimate accomplishments of Detroit’s Super Bowl...Read more

David A. Tobar

This study examined personal characteristics (e.g., sport fandom, age, gender) and affective outcomes (e.g., mood, enjoyment) of Super Bowl XL television spectators. Purchase intentions of products marketed during the Super Bowl were also examined. The sample included college students (59 men; 22 women) and their parents (51 fathers; 60 mothers). Participants completed measures of sport fandom and mood before the Super Bowl, and measures of mood, enjoyment, and purchase intentions following the Super Bowl. Men and students reported higher sport fandom. Students reported more mood...Read more

Marijke Taks
Vassil Girginov
Robert Boucher

The recent hosting of Bowl XL in Detroit gave the adjacent Canadian city of Windsor, Ontario, the opportunity to ‘coattail market?the event and reap some obvious benefits. For a modest $250,000 investment, Windsor was billed as the co-host and the local media cooperated by providing very positive coverage of this ‘win win?arrangement. Using Hiller’s (1998) linkage model for analyzing the impact of mega sporting events, the authors use qualitative methods to determine the extent to which the city enjoyed tangible returns as a result of this unique co-hosting arrangement. On-site interviews...Read more

Ray G. Schneider
Cheri L. Bradish

The marketing of ‘place?is often overlooked throughout academic research. Because ‘place?can include both the physical location as well as means of distribution, it has been regarded as the most difficult marketing component to adjust. This paper investigates Super Bowl XL, which was held in Detroit, Michigan, and the marketing strategies and principles used by the Detroit Super Bowl Bid Committee. Clearly, role of ‘place?was not only instrumental in Detroit being awarded the Super Bowl but also vital to the success of North America’s preeminent sporting event.Read more

Kathy Babiak
Richard Wolfe

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown in importance to sport organizations as well as to the mega-events run by these organizations. This paper explores CSR initiatives related to Super Bowl XL in Detroit. Using Carroll’s (Carroll, 1979, 1999) framework of CSR, we outline some of the key community outreach efforts initiated by the NFL and the Super Bowl Host Committee, and further, we discuss the ways in which these efforts might help in building the NFL’s image as a professional sport league that takes its social responsibility seriously.Read more