Wonseok (Eric) Jang
Joon Sung Lee
Janice Cho
and Jeoung-Hak Lee

Using an in-group bias effect as a theoretical framework, this study examined how scandal-ridden athletes may obtain forgiveness and continuous support from highly identified sport consumers depending on the visual strategy used in the official statement and the severity of the scandal. The results indicated that for a high-severity scandal, an angular shape is more effective than a circular shape in eliciting positive evaluations from highly identified sport consumers. In contrast, for a low-severity scandal, a circular shape is more effective than an angular shape in obtaining positive...Read more

Katherine R. N. Reifurth
Matthew J. Bernthal
Khalid Ballouli
and Dorothy Collins

Sports fans’ identification with their hometown is a very salient aspect of who they are, and thus, they are likely to be attracted to teams that represent the place they call “home.” Although recent sport marketing studies have shed light on the importance of home among fans, there is a void in the literature relative to “nonlocal fans.” This study aims to examine how geographic distance, geographic identity, and the presence of other local teams affect team identification for different types of nonlocal fans: displaced and nondisplaced fans. Nine hundred and twenty self-identified...Read more

Jeffrey D. James
Elizabeth B. Delia
and Daniel L. L. Wann

Scholars have studied sport team identification for decades, advancing our understanding of the influence of a psychological connection to a sport team on attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Despite the contribution of the study of team identification to the sport fan psychology and sport consumer behavior literatures, a critical issue is apparent. A review of the methods used by scholars to assess and study team identification uncovered a misinterpretation of participant responses to team identification scale items. In previous re-search, not-identified individuals have been examined as...Read more

Eric Brownlee
T. Christopher Greenwell
and Anita Moorman

One of the benefits of being an official sponsor is the right to use the term “official sponsor” to differentiate a company’s association with a property from other companies (non-sponsors). Official sponsors may pay a premium for those designations; however, there is uncertainty as to whether or not those designations are effective. This study utilizes scenarios simulating official Major League Baseball (MLB) team sponsorship, official MLB sponsorship, and no official association with MLB or the team to assess the effect of these statuses on purchase intentions. Results from a sample of...Read more

Hyun-Woo Lee
Christina Gipson
and Chris Barnhill

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact that flow and team identification have on spectators’ perceptions of stadium atmosphere. Data were collected from students attending men’s basketball and baseball games at a large NCAA Division I university. The results indicated that stadium flow is directly related to spectators’ perceptions of the stadium atmosphere. Team identification was found to influence flow and also have a moderating effect in the model with stadium flow having a greater impact on lower-identified spectators than on highly identified fans.Read more

Jaewon Chang
Joon-Ho Kang
Yong Jae Ko
and Dan Connaughton

Although pride is considered an important concept in the business marketing literature, this emotional construct has not been explored in the context of sport fan behavior. In particular, very few studies have investigated the antecedents and consequences of pride. To fill the conceptual void, in the current study, the researchers investigated the relationships among pride, team performance/corporate social responsibility (CSR), and word of mouth (WOM) recommendation. The moderating effect of team identification was also examined. The results suggest that both fans’ perception of team...Read more

Henry Wear
Bob Heere
and Aaron Clopton

This study examined the effectiveness of sportswear companies’ sponsorship of intercollegiate athletic departments, and the subsequent effects on the students of the university. The value of these sponsorship contracts has grown exponentially, with new contracts averaging $6 million a year per institution (Kish, 2014). However, little research has been devoted to the impact of the relationship between sportswear brands and university students, and it is uncertain what the return on investment of these sponsorships are to the apparel companies, other than media exposure. To examine how...Read more

Youngbum Kwon
Dae Hee Kwak

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of multidimensional consumer values in the relationship between team identification, purchase attitude, and purchase intention in the team-licensed merchandise context. The study also tested the moderating effects of product category (utilitarian/hedonic) and performance priming (positive/negative). Fans of two college sport teams (N = 203) participated in the study. Both multidimensional consumer values (i.e., functional, emotional, and social) and team identification were shown to influence purchase attitude. In turn, the attitude toward...Read more

Brendan Dwyer
Joris Drayer
Stephen L. Shapiro

When purchasing tickets in advance, sports consumers are often faced with uncertainty. Most notably, in today’s real-time environment, it can be challenging for consumers to determine how ticket prices and seat availability will change over time. Guided by the generic advanced-booking decision model, the current study investigated the role of time, ticket source (primary or secondary market), and team identification in advanced ticket purchasing by exploring a consumer’s perceptions of ticket availability and finding a lower price. The results suggest the perceived likelihood of ticket...Read more

Blaine T. Uhlman
Galen T. Trail

The Seattle Sounders FC took Major League Soccer by storm in its inaugural season of 2009. The club led the league in attendance, won the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup trophy, and clinched a playoff berth. The team’s success was attributed in part to its rabid fan base, which routinely sold out its 30,000-seat venue and nearly doubled the league attendance average. How was it that an expansion franchise was able to garner such immediate, fervent support, while original franchises with well-established fan bases struggled? This case study sought to supplement the limited current literature...Read more

Pages