Hyun-Woo Lee
Christina Gipson
and Chris Barnhill

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact that flow and team identification have on spectators’ perceptions of stadium atmosphere. Data were collected from students attending men’s basketball and baseball games at a large NCAA Division I university. The results indicated that stadium flow is directly related to spectators’ perceptions of the stadium atmosphere. Team identification was found to influence flow and also have a moderating effect in the model with stadium flow having a greater impact on lower-identified spectators than on highly identified fans.Read more

Jaewon Chang
Joon-Ho Kang
Yong Jae Ko
and Dan Connaughton

Although pride is considered an important concept in the business marketing literature, this emotional construct has not been explored in the context of sport fan behavior. In particular, very few studies have investigated the antecedents and consequences of pride. To fill the conceptual void, in the current study, the researchers investigated the relationships among pride, team performance/corporate social responsibility (CSR), and word of mouth (WOM) recommendation. The moderating effect of team identification was also examined. The results suggest that both fans’ perception of team...Read more

Henry Wear
Bob Heere
and Aaron Clopton

This study examined the effectiveness of sportswear companies’ sponsorship of intercollegiate athletic departments, and the subsequent effects on the students of the university. The value of these sponsorship contracts has grown exponentially, with new contracts averaging $6 million a year per institution (Kish, 2014). However, little research has been devoted to the impact of the relationship between sportswear brands and university students, and it is uncertain what the return on investment of these sponsorships are to the apparel companies, other than media exposure. To examine how...Read more

Youngbum Kwon
Dae Hee Kwak

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of multidimensional consumer values in the relationship between team identification, purchase attitude, and purchase intention in the team-licensed merchandise context. The study also tested the moderating effects of product category (utilitarian/hedonic) and performance priming (positive/negative). Fans of two college sport teams (N = 203) participated in the study. Both multidimensional consumer values (i.e., functional, emotional, and social) and team identification were shown to influence purchase attitude. In turn, the attitude toward...Read more

Brendan Dwyer
Joris Drayer
Stephen L. Shapiro

When purchasing tickets in advance, sports consumers are often faced with uncertainty. Most notably, in today’s real-time environment, it can be challenging for consumers to determine how ticket prices and seat availability will change over time. Guided by the generic advanced-booking decision model, the current study investigated the role of time, ticket source (primary or secondary market), and team identification in advanced ticket purchasing by exploring a consumer’s perceptions of ticket availability and finding a lower price. The results suggest the perceived likelihood of ticket...Read more

Blaine T. Uhlman
Galen T. Trail

The Seattle Sounders FC took Major League Soccer by storm in its inaugural season of 2009. The club led the league in attendance, won the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup trophy, and clinched a playoff berth. The team’s success was attributed in part to its rabid fan base, which routinely sold out its 30,000-seat venue and nearly doubled the league attendance average. How was it that an expansion franchise was able to garner such immediate, fervent support, while original franchises with well-established fan bases struggled? This case study sought to supplement the limited current literature...Read more

Nicholas D. Theodorakis
Daniel L. Wann
Stephen Weaver

The current investigation examined the interrelationships among overall sport team identification, specific dimensions of team identification, and behavioral intentions. Using an antecedents approach to guide predictions (Dabholkar, Shepherd, & Thorpe, 2000), a model was tested in which overall identification would mediate the relationship between specific dimensions of team identification and behavioral intentions. To test the hypothesized pattern of effects, participants completed a questionnaire packet assessing overall identification via the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (...Read more

Tara B. Luellen
Daniel L. Wann

Team identification has been defined as an individual’s psychological connection to a team (Wann, 2006). Outgroup or rival team salience is the awareness of a specified outgroup or rival team, and its impact on team identification was explored in this series of studies. In the first study (N = 143), participants viewed either a neutral sports video or a rival team highlight video. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed and supported the hypothesis that a salient rival team would increase identification. The second study (N = 67) examined the impact of a researcher wearing either a rival...Read more

Mark P. Pritchard
Jeff Stinson
Elizabeth Patton

This study examines if fan identification with a sports team is established through two similar yet distinct psychological processes: affinity and affiliation. The brand personality literature indicates consumers build an affinity with brands, or in this case teams, whose image is congruent with their own personality. On the other hand, consumers affiliate with and become attached to organizations they feel emulate and share their values. The current study examines the relative contribution team affinity and organizational affiliation, with the sponsoring university, play in forming...Read more

Hyungil H. Kwon
Galen T. Trail
Donghun Lee

We examined the influence of vicarious achievement and team identification on BIRGing and CORFing behavior. We tested three different models (direct effects, partially mediated, and fully mediated) across two different situations: BIRGing with the winning team and CORFing with the losing team. Data were collected from 246 students. The fully mediated model fit best in the BIRGing situation and the partially mediated model fit best in the CORFing situation. We found that vicarious achievement explained 12.7% to 16.9% of the variance in team identification across situations. Vicarious...Read more