Matthew Walker
Todd Hall
Samuel Y. Todd
Aubrey Kent

Sponsorship activity has increased dramatically over the last two decades, as has customer knowledge of this promotional activity associated with experiential consumption. While a number of studies have measured consumers’ understanding of how event marketing affects their evaluation of a brand, scant empirical attention has been paid to how consumers use sponsorships as signals of event quality. In a between-subjects experimental design, main effects were found for the sponsor’s functional similarity and regression analyses suggest that the strength of the sponsors’ influence predicted...Read more

Windy Dees
Gregg Bennett
Mauricio Ferreira

The purpose of this study was to determine if personality fit between NASCAR (National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing) drivers and their major sponsors affects the sponsorship outcomes of consumer attitudes toward the sponsor, attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intentions. Fan identification and product involvement were examined as moderators between personality fit and the sponsorship outcomes. The respondents (N=347) in this study were attendees at the NASCAR Samsung 500. Data analyses included a factor analysis, descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and...Read more

J. Andrew Choi

Between January 2001 and November 2009, players of Asian descent won nearly 30% of the 287 LPGA-sanctioned tournaments held during the period. By contrast, only 15 years ago (in 1995), an Asian player won only one of the 37 LPGA tournaments held that year (Ladies Professional Golf Association [LPGA], 2009). Clearly, a new generation of golfers has significantly increased the ethnic diversity of the LPGA and its tournament winners. This study investigated whether and how ethnic diversity in the LPGA has influenced the objectives and strategies of LPGA sponsorship decisions for the Anheuser-...Read more

Heather Maxwell
Nancy Lough

The reliance on signage to generate spectator recognition of sponsors has become so commonplace that the concept of sponsorship is nearly synonymous with the use of signage in sport venues. A multitude of studies have measured sponsorship recognition and/or recall among sport spectators as the means to justify the practice (Bennett, Henson, & Zhang, 2002; Cuneen & Hannan, 1993; Nicholls, Roslow, & Dublish, 1999; Pitts & Slattery, 2004; Pitts, 1998; Stotlar, 1993; Stotlar & Johnson, 1989). Previous literature suggests more highly involved spectators, such as college...Read more

Karen E. Danylchuk
Eric MacIntosh

This study’s primary purpose was to examine the opinions of consumers toward the appropriateness of food and non-alcoholic beverage sponsorships of sporting events in relation to other products. Research of this nature is particularly timely in light of the current obesity issue because many food and beverage products contribute to the obesity problem. Phase one involved a written survey (N = 253) whereas phase two involved two focus groups (N = 12). Attitudes toward food and non-alcoholic beverage sponsorships of sporting events were more favorable than alcohol sponsorships, followed by...Read more

Gregg Bennett
Mauricio Ferreira
Jaedeock Lee
Fritz Polite

Brand use is a critically important measure of business and marketing success (Allenby et al., 2002), and the search for empirical evidence explaining product or brand use is a major stream in marketing literature (Fennell, Allenby, Yang, & Edwards, 2003). Over the past century, research has examined the relationship among several variables (e.g., psychographics, age, gender, and other demographics) in an effort to better understand consumption rates and brand use (Shaw, 1912; Smith, 1956) so strategies can be developed to increase brand use...Read more

Dan Covell

In May 2005, Jon Goode, Director of Corporate Communications for the Lowell (Massachusetts) Spinners, the Class A New York-Penn League affiliate of Major League Baseball’s Boston Red Sox, was taking part in a literacy program visit at a third-grade class in nearby Andover. He asked an innocent question to get the class warmed up: How many of you play baseball? Many raised their hands. Goode then pointed to one boy and asked, “What team do you play for?” “The Yankees,” the boy said. “That’s cool,” said Goode, a dyed-in-the-wool Red Sox fan trying to present a façade of equanimity. Deadly...Read more

Windy Dees
Gregg Bennett
Jorge Villegas

Evaluating sponsorship activities at elite intercollegiate sporting events has become critical to determining sponsorship effectiveness and maximizing the relationships between athletic departments and their corporate partners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sponsorship of an elite intercollegiate football program by analyzing the effects of the constructs of attitude toward the sponsor, goodwill, and fan involvement on consumer purchase intentions. In this study (N=394), there were 52% males, 77% Caucasians, and 71% percent of the participants ranging from 18-24 years of...Read more

Marion E. Hambrick
Anita M. Moorman

In 2007 AT&T Mobility sought an injunction against the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), enjoining the racing organization from preventing the display of its logo on the Richard Childress Racing (RCR) #31 racecar (AT&T v. NASCAR, 2007). Although the parties settled out of court, this case is indicative of an increasing number of sponsorship disputes arising in the sport industry. This dispute reflects the growing conflicts between competing sponsors, and it further emphasizes the challenges faced by sport properties, event promoters, participants, and...Read more

Jacquelyn Cuneen
Nancy E. Spencer
Sally R. Ross
Artemisia Apostolopoulou

This study presents a perspective on advertisements featuring female drivers that appeared in the official Indianapolis 500 programs from 1977 to 2006. Specifically, content analysis was used to track the succession of female drivers’ depictions in the programs over the 29-year period from Janet Guthrie’s rookie year to Danica Patrick’s second race appearance. Ads were analyzed for pose, connotation, role portrayal, and camera angle. Descriptive statistics indicated that prior to 2003, the drivers’ (Guthrie, Lyn St. James, Sarah Fisher, and Patrick) ad depictions were most often strong and...Read more

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