James Du
Christopher M. McLeod
and Jeffrey D. James

In this paper, we examined how brand environments and pre-existing attachments create brand awareness of a new sport team. Using a two-wave panel design, this study used a new sport team in the US as a natural experiment to examine the changes in awareness before and after the team’s debut. We collected data from a sample of 190 representative city residents. Our results showed that brand awareness increased by 39.2% after the team played the inaugural game. We attributed the driving forces behind this change to a preseason branding campaign and individuals’ existing connections with sport...Read more

Windy Dees
Colin Gay
Nels Popp
and Jonathan A. Jensen

Brand awareness is frequently cited as a main objective for firms engaging in sponsorship and is often used as a measurement of sponsorship effectiveness. Meanwhile, sport sponsorship has evolved from static signage and one-way messaging to include an exhaustive list of assets and intangible rights, along with extensive on-site activation, each with a specific incremental cost. Yet, it is unknown whether the mix of assets and rights firms may choose to purchase, along with an investment in activation, impacts their ability to generate greater sponsorship effectiveness in the form of brand...Read more

Hojun Sung
Changi Nam
Minki Kim
and Seung Hun Han

Sport sponsorship has increased the value of sponsoring firms by becoming a key factor in the communication mix with customers and investors that can enhance corporate image and stimulate the sales of products and services (Javalgi, Traylor, Gross, & Lampman, 1994). Several studies show that sport sponsorship can lead to positive stock returns, which is consistent with modern corporate finance’s ultimate goal of maximizing firm value (Chen & Chen, 2012; Cornwell, Pruitt, & Clark, 2005; Miyazaki & Morgan, 2001; Pruitt, Cornwell, & Clark, 2004; Reiser, Breuer, &...Read more