Greg Greenhalgh
Brendan Dwyer
and Carrie LeCrom

This manuscript challenges the contemporary methods of measuring sport team brand personality (BP). The study of BP exploded after Aaker’s development of the brand personality scale in 1997. In 2010 Heere suggested a deviation from Aaker’s (1997) scale where she designed one instrument to measure the BP of all products or services. Conversely, Heere’s (2010) two-step method has the administrators of organizations under investigation provide the BP adjectives they feel best describe their organization, then have fans of that team assess how well the fans perceive each of the adjectives...Read more

Patrick Walsh
Galen Clavio
M. David Lovell
Matthew Blaszka

Research on both brand personality and social media in sport is still in their respective developmental stages, and to date no research has examined the impact of social media use on sport brands. This study was the first to examine if differences exist in the brand personality of a sport event between those that use the events social media page and those that do not. After surveying fans of a major National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) event, the results revealed that eight of the nine brand personality items were rated significantly higher for users of the event’s Facebook page...Read more

Jessica R. Braunstein
Stephen D. Ross

The idea of brand personality in sport (BPS) has become a popular topic of study among academicians in the sport management field. While the conceptualization and operationalization of the construct has been heavily discussed, establishing a valid and reliable assessment tool has yet to be achieved. The current study reexamines the general brand personality (BP) dimensions and looks to apply them to the unique characteristics in sport. The scale developed in the current study establishes a baseline tool in which future research can be conducted. The results provide initial levels of...Read more

Bob Heere

Brand personality research has made extensive use of factor modeling to grasp the dimensions of brand personality. Many scholars have adapted this technique to capture the brand personality of an organization. It is argued in this study that letting consumers associate a brand with a personality through factor modeling is flawed and anthropomorphic in nature. Therefore, the author proposes a different technique to measure these associations, by asking managers about what personality associations they implement while marketing their brand. Based on their responses, a list of associations...Read more