Ashley Stadler Blank
Kristi Sweeney
Rhema D. Fuller

Due to the growing buying power of diverse consumers and the importance of attendance to professional sports in the US, this study qualitatively examines the factors affecting African-American attendance at professional sporting events and identifies several attendance drivers and constraints, including alternative forms of commitment, atmosphere, comfort and convenience, cost, exposure and access to the sport, image and identity, performance and entertainment, social nature of sport, and value. These findings support and extend prior research by offering seven new factors affecting...Read more

George B. Cunningham
E. Nicole Melton

Drawing from signaling theory and creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of advertising inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals on consumers’ intentions to join a fitness club. The authors also considered the moderating effects of consumer gender and social dominance orientation. Participants (N = 203) took part in an experiment where they reviewed fitness club advertisements and then responded to a questionnaire. Persons who viewed LGBT inclusive advertisements were more likely to believe the club was diverse and...Read more