T. Christopher Greenwell
Janghyuk Lee
Dylan Naeger

Customer complaints and comments provide managers with an important source of information, and an analysis of these critical incidents provides additional insight into which aspects of the spectator experience customers identify as being vital. Using the critical incidents technique (CIT), data on 1,111 positive and negative aspects of the spectator experience were collected from 831 customers at two different minor league sporting events. Incidents were categorized to identify aspects both favorably and unfavorably influencing customers. Findings identify which aspects of the spectator...Read more

Stephen D. Ross

The present study uses cluster analysis to identify segments of spectators based upon the brand associations held for a professional sport team. A secondary purpose is to identify potential similarities and differences among identified segments based upon demographic variables. Results from a sample of 662 ticket holders from a National Basketball Association (NBA) team indicated that the respondents could be segmented into two distinct groups based upon the perceptions of the sport brand. Results also indicated that the members of each spectator cluster could be further distinguished...Read more

Lynn L. Ridinger
Daniel C. Funk

This paper explores common assumptions about the intrinsic differences between male and female consumers within a subset of leisure consumption ?sport spectating. This research utilized the Sports Interest Inventory (SII) (Funk, Mahony & Ridinger, 2002) to examine differences between spectators (N = 959) attending men’s and women’s basketball games at a NCAA Division I institution. MANOVA results revealed nine differences for Team-Gender, seven differences for Spectator-Gender, and three interaction effects. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that three core interest factors...Read more

Gi-Yong Koo
Jerome Quarterman
Leisa Flynn

The purposes of this study were to: a) examine the effect of perceived brand/sport event image fit on consumers?cognitive and affective responses, and b) examine the effects of consumers?cognitive and affective responses on purchase intentions. Data were collected from different participants under two conditions, pre-test and main test. The pre-test stage included 162 participants and the main test stage included 452 participants who watched the 2003 College Bowl Championship Series. The results revealed that participants in the high image fit group had more positive corporate image and...Read more

Colleen C. Bee
Lynn R. Kahle

This paper examines how and why consumers develop, enter into, and maintain relationships in a sports marketing context. This paper presents a framework for understanding how and why consumers engage in relationship marketing. Based on Kelman’s functional approach to attitude change, this framework presents three qualitatively different levels for understanding relationship formation and maintenance: (a) compliance is superficial, temporary, and often the result of external influence; (b) identification is related to selfesteem and image enhancement of sport consumers; and (c)...Read more

Irvine Clarke III
Ryan Mannion

The Asian American market segment is the fastest growing minority group in the United States (Li, 2003). However, the potential of this important market segment for sport franchises remains relatively untapped. Differences in cultural values and general consumer behavior may compel sports marketers to adapt current marketing approaches. This paper explores the Asian American market as consumers of sport. Best marketing practices of current sports franchises are examined, and recommendations for sports marketers on how to successfully target the Asian American market segment are provided.Read more

D. Erin Shackelford
T. Christopher Greenwell

A great deal of research is devoted to the study of factors affecting spectator attendance; however, the majority of these studies have focused on men's sports. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to analyze the relationship between specific factors and spectator attendance at selected NCAA Division I women's sporting events. Based on a review of related literature, five characteristics that may affect attendance were selected for this study: city population, student enrollment, competition from other Division I universities, competition from professional sports teams, and previous...Read more

This study investigates how an Ivy League school's football season ticket holders demonstrate their attachment and allegiance to the intercollegiate athletic product through the application of stakeholder theory as a marketing-based construct. This paper merges the tenets of stakeholder theory and the theoretical constructs of attachment and allegiance initially investigated in Covell (2004) to understand the interests and values of these stakeholders, how they demonstrate attachment and allegiance to the sport property, and how they perceive the importance of winning in relation to their...Read more

Galen T. Trail
Dean F. Anderson
Janet S. Fink

Sport spectating is a popular activity in the United States but little is known about the theoretical nuances that determine loyalty behavior in sport. The focus of the study was to test three competing conative loyalty models based on identity theory and consumer satisfaction theory. These models included relationships among team identification, disconfirmation/confirmation of expectancies, mood, self-esteem responses, and conative loyalty. Data were collected from spectators at a large Midwestern university at two home men's (n=530) and two home women's (n=749) intercollegiate basketball...Read more

Christie H. Amato
Cara Lee Okleshen Peters
Alan T. Shao

Marketers are taking notice of NASCAR¡¯s cultural impact and the impressive financial returns to be garnered from investing in the sport. This work examines NASCAR fans and their sport-related attitudes and behaviors. Results suggest that there are two follower types, those who are deeply bonded to the sport, and those who are pledged to the sport but demonstrate comparatively less commitment to racing, NASCAR related media, and sponsors¡¯ products. Managerial implications are discussed in terms of a relationship commitment metaphor.Read more