Pamela Wicker
Johannes Orlowski
and Christoph Breuer

This study examines the effect of various formal qualifications on the income of elite sport coaches in less commercialized sports. Elite sport coaches (i.e., coaches who are at least partially funded by the federal government) were surveyed online (n=186). Altogether, they reported 65 different formal qualifications that could be summarized into eleven categories. The regression results show that only a university degree in sport sciences has a significant positive effect on monthly net income, while various coaching licenses, diplomas, certificates, and formations are...Read more

Pamela Wicker
Joachim Prinz
Daniel Weimar
Christian Deutscher
Thorsten Upmann

Several determinants of player values like productivity and human capital have been investigated in previous research; however, the influence of individual effort has been neglected. This study assumes that effort could be a signaling device and analyzes the effect of effort on market values of soccer players. Secondary data on player statistics and market values from the 2011/2012 season and the first half of the 2012/2013 season of the German Bundesliga were collected (n=877). Technical innovations that record routes and running distances in soccer allow using total running distance and...Read more