Nancy L. Lough
Jennifer R. Pharr
Jason O. Owen

The economic value of participation sport has been reported to eclipse spectator sport significantly. However, scholars have acknowledged the relative lack of research on this important segment of the sport market. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between runner identity and race sponsor effectiveness. Surveys were sent to participants in the Las Vegas Rock ‘n’ Roll Marathon. The survey was constructed to measure runner identity, and sponsor effectiveness as interpreted through rates of recognition, recall and purchase intention. Runners were divided into three...Read more

Sung Keun (SK) Koo
Kevin K. Byon
Thomas A. Baker

While mega events substantially contribute to a hosting community’s economy and marketing appeal, small-scale events might result in more positive effects because they operate within an existing infrastructure, require a smaller budget, create a more manageable level of crowd congestion, and have high-impact regional effects on the community. Despite the positive effects and prevalence of small-scale events, few have examined their conceptual development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hierarchical relationship among event image, satisfaction, and behavioral intention (i....Read more

Amy Rundio
Bob Heere
Brianna Newland

In the crowded sport event market, differentiation strategy is key to the survival of event organizers. One way to differentiate an event is by adding a charity component. To understand how events attract athletes, this study compared the motives of athletes to participate in cause-related or non-cause-related sport events. Using the Motivations of Marathoners Scales (MOMS), participants rated motivations to attend either cause-related sport events or non-cause-related sport events. The five motivations important for all participants were General Health Orientation, Personal Goal...Read more

Steve McKelvey
Dennis Sandler
Kevin Snyder

Prior academic research studies have examined the practice of ambush marketing from the perspective of sporting event non-participants (e.g., spectators, viewers and general sport consumers).This exploratory study furthers the line of research into ambush marketing by assessing the attitudes of participants in a major sporting event toward the practice of ambush marketing. Specifically, the researchers surveyed a random sampling of runners who participated in the 2005 and the 2008 ING New York City Marathons. In contrast to the findings in prior studies of sporting event non-participants,...Read more

Douglas J. Olberding
Jay Jisha

n a relatively short period of time, The Flying Pig Marathon has developed a reputation as a ...Read more