Brendan Dwyer
Zach Scola
and Joris Drayer

The current multi-study examination explored explicit and implicit appeal of a prominent form of retro sport marketing: retro team logos. Study 1 utilized the stimuli-organism-response framework to test preference differences between those offered team merchandise with a retro logo and those offered the same merchandise with the current logo. Statistically significant preference differences were not uncovered, yet it was found that previous exposure to the retro logo negatively impacted preference of the retro logo. Based on these results, Study 2 utilized an implicit association test to...Read more

Thomas A. Baker III
Kevin K. Byon

According to Fullerton (2010), licensing is a value adding process that provides sport organizations (both licensor and licensee) with significant revenue streams. For instance, the National Football League (NFL) is projected to earn $2.7 billion from the sales of logoed merchandise (Rovell, 2010). In order for sport organizations to maximize benefits as licensors and licensees, it is imperative that they develop and maintain a licensing plan for copyrighted marks and logos. A well-developed licensing plan would guide sport organizations in protecting the brand value of their own works and...Read more

Harry H. Kwon
Hongbum Kim
Michael Mondello

Despite increased sales of sports team licensed merchandise, there is a lack of research examining the effect of the manufacturer brand on the sales of such products. This study examined whether manufacturers’ brand influenced sport consumers’ attitudes toward and purchase intentions of licensed apparel. Using information integration theory and classical conditioning, four different hypotheses were developed. The data were collected from 299 students (men = 201; women = 98). The questionnaire included attitude toward a manufacturer, attitude toward school athletic teams, attitude toward co...Read more