Khalid Ballouli
Galen T. Trail
Todd C. Koesters
and Matthew J. Bernthal

This research examines the differential effects of motives and points of attachment on conative loyalty of Formula 1 U.S. Grand Prix attendees. Theoretical perspectives of role identity and extant literature on identification and spectator consumption behavior guided this investigation and aided in model development. While numerous researchers in the sport marketing literature have examined motives and points of attachment, there is a relative dearth of studies devoted to the effects of motives and points of attachment on conative loyalty. Study participants (N=247) comprised...Read more

Boyun Woo
T. Trail
Hyungil Harry Kwon
Dean Anderson

As the spectator sport market has become large and competition for consumers has increased, the need for understanding spectators’ motives and points of attachment has become important for developing effective marketing strategies. The purpose of the study was to examine four different models that explain the relationships among motives and points of attachment and determine a model that explains the most variance in the referent variables. A total of 501 college students responded to the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC) and the Points of Attachment Index (PAI). The results...Read more