Rodney J. Paul
Andrew P. Weinbach

Fireworks are a very popular promotion for Minor League Baseball teams. In recent years, fireworks displays have moved beyond holidays to a frequent staple on promotional schedules throughout the baseball season. With increased frequency, the possibility exists that the market for fireworks may become saturated. This paper examines the 2011 season for AAA and AA baseball and finds, controlling for other factors influencing attendance, that increased usage of fireworks does not generate overly detrimental effects in terms of its marginal impact on attendance. Fans appear to continue to...Read more

Matthew T. Brown
Todd Koesters

In-game promotions are a marketing mainstay designed to entertain spectators at sporting events as part of the total entertainment environment (Veeck, 1996). Spectator sporting events are designed as experiences that should never let spectators become bored (Brown & Kreutzer, 2002). As a result, there has been an increase over time in the number and variety of promotional activities held during sporting events. From “Kiss Cams” to mascot and dizzy bat races, the number and variety of promotional activities held during a game seems never ending (Crenshaw, 2014)Read more