Sören Dallmeyer
Pamela Wicker
and Christoph Breuer

This study performs a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between various types of government spending and individual sport participation. By combining in­dividual data from the German Socio-Economic Panel with expenditure data of the federal states for the period 2003–2011, direct (i.e., sport facilities, pools, general sport promotion), potential spillover (i.e., education, health, streets, public transport, envi­ronment), and substitution effects (i.e., culture) on regular sport participation are ana­lyzed. The results of probit models reveal positive effects for direct sport-...Read more

John Jasina
Kurt Rotthoff

Stadium boosters have long used the promise of economic development as a means to gain public support for financing local sports teams. Past research has shown little or no impact on employment or income when viewed at the MSA level. This paper expands the current literature on the economic impact of professional sports franchises. Following Coates and Humphreys (2003), we look at employment and wages at the county level using detailed SIC and NAICS industry codes. We find mixed results on employment within a county but find a negative effect on the payrolls within specific industries.Read more

Matthew T. Brown
Daniel A. Rascher
Wesley M. Ward

During the past decade there has been a proliferation of sports stadia being built in America’s municipal districts. While it used to be common for the public to fully fund stadium construction projects, over the past 20 years factors such as political motives, tax reform, and increased public awareness of tax equity have forced sports teams to share increasing amounts of the financial burden (Crompton, Howard, & Var, 2003). As public funding for stadia construction has decreased, franchises have continued to strive for maximized profits. Concurrently, the cost of attending events in...Read more