Yongjin Hwang and Khalid Ballouli

Few studies in sport marketing have examined the formative role of venue stimuli in affecting sport spectators. As such, the fi eld currently lacks methodological direction for dealing with venue stimuli as a means to understand the sport spectator experience. Research is needed to inform academics and practitioners about the appropriate use and potential outcomes of venue stimuli, particularly as they relate to destination image and local place. Given the notable lack of investigation on this topic, this study was exploratory in nature, with the purposes of developing and validating a...Read more

Khalid Ballouli
Gregg Bennett

This research examines the effects of brand music on consumer behavior in a stadium retail store. Brand music is custom-fit music embodying the unique attributes and characteristics of a brand, using distinctive lyrics in otherwise analogous music to prime specific concepts. Extant research on store atmospherics and theoretical perspectives of conceptual fluency guided this investigation and aided in hypothesis development. A total of 232 shoppers were randomly intercepted during two shopping scenarios in which brand music or generic (popular) music was played in a stadium retail store....Read more