Marijke Taks
Stefan Kesenne
Laurence Chalip
Christine Green
Scott Martyn

This paper empirically illustrates the difference between a standard economic impact analysis (EIA) and a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The EIA was conducted using an existing (input-output) I-O model (STEAM). The benefit side of the CBA included non-local visitor spending, the revenue of the local organizing committee (LOC), the consumer surplus, and public good value of the sport event for the local residents. The cost side of the CBA was estimated based on the opportunity costs related to the construction of the stadium (including labor costs and the cost of borrowing), imports, and...Read more

Matthew T. Brown
Todd Koesters

In-game promotions are a marketing mainstay designed to entertain spectators at sporting events as part of the total entertainment environment (Veeck, 1996). Spectator sporting events are designed as experiences that should never let spectators become bored (Brown & Kreutzer, 2002). As a result, there has been an increase over time in the number and variety of promotional activities held during sporting events. From “Kiss Cams” to mascot and dizzy bat races, the number and variety of promotional activities held during a game seems never ending (Crenshaw, 2014)Read more

Sagatoma Tokyama
T. Christopher Greenwell

Knowing similarities and differences between sport participants and spectators can be advantageous for sport marketers as it may allow sport organizations to increase their consumer base beyond their traditional consumers. Therefore, the present study is aimed at examining similarities and differences of consumer motivation for both playing and watching sports. Using a sample of soccer consumers who both play and watch soccer (N = 237), the study found that for the most part, motivations for playing and watching soccer were different. However, affiliation was found to predict commitment to...Read more

Lynn L. Ridinger
Daniel C. Funk

This paper explores common assumptions about the intrinsic differences between male and female consumers within a subset of leisure consumption ?sport spectating. This research utilized the Sports Interest Inventory (SII) (Funk, Mahony & Ridinger, 2002) to examine differences between spectators (N = 959) attending men’s and women’s basketball games at a NCAA Division I institution. MANOVA results revealed nine differences for Team-Gender, seven differences for Spectator-Gender, and three interaction effects. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that three core interest factors...Read more