Jesyca Salgado-Barandela
Ángel Barajas
and Patricio Sanchez-Fernandez

There are limitations in determining the economic impact of sporting events that need to be considered. One of these is represented by first-round leakages. This work focuses on explaining first-round leakages in the economic impact of sporting events on small cities. Seeking to identify this type of leakage, we estimated the spatial distribution of the economic impact of two small-sized events organized in a town with a population of 24,248 inhabitants. The results showed a first-round leakage exceeding €300,000 and identified higher average attendee expenditure in a more developed city...Read more

Erik Thibaut
Steven Vos
Jeroen Scheerder

The aim of the current study is twofold. First, it investigates the influencing factors of runners’ sports apparel value at a running event. Second, the potential value of observational data in the socioeconomic field is investigated, as this study combines data retrieved by a survey and by visually scanning pictures of event runners. The results demonstrate that visual data gathering methods contribute to explaining sports apparel usage and consumption. For example, it is found that runners who wear a shirt of the running event spent less money on their running shoes and overall sports...Read more

Rui Biscaia and Claudio Rocha

This study examines awareness, congruence, attitudes, and purchase intentions of three local sponsors of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and their strongest rival brands, and tests the relationships among congruence, attitudes, and purchase intentions of both actual sponsors and their rivals. Data were collected through an online questionnaire (n = 621). Results indicated that awareness was significantly higher for only one of the sponsors. Neither congruence nor attitude toward the brand were higher for local sponsors when compared to their rival brands. Purchase intentions were significantly...Read more