Windy Dees
Colin Gay
Nels Popp
and Jonathan A. Jensen

Brand awareness is frequently cited as a main objective for firms engaging in sponsorship and is often used as a measurement of sponsorship effectiveness. Meanwhile, sport sponsorship has evolved from static signage and one-way messaging to include an exhaustive list of assets and intangible rights, along with extensive on-site activation, each with a specific incremental cost. Yet, it is unknown whether the mix of assets and rights firms may choose to purchase, along with an investment in activation, impacts their ability to generate greater sponsorship effectiveness in the form of brand...Read more

Jonathan A. Jensen and Brian A. Turner

Despite considerable advances in the application of advanced analytics across the sport industry, sponsorship revenue forecasting still largely relies on a decades-old methodology, the renewal rate. This paper performs the first application of event history analysis (EHA) approaches to quantitatively analyze the duration of Olympic and World Cup sponsorships, to determine not only the percentage of sponsors who renew, but when sponsorships are most likely to continue, when the probability of a sponsorship ending is highest, and their median lifetimes. Consistent with prior applications of...Read more

Nancy L. Lough
Jennifer R. Pharr
Jason O. Owen

The economic value of participation sport has been reported to eclipse spectator sport significantly. However, scholars have acknowledged the relative lack of research on this important segment of the sport market. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between runner identity and race sponsor effectiveness. Surveys were sent to participants in the Las Vegas Rock ‘n’ Roll Marathon. The survey was constructed to measure runner identity, and sponsor effectiveness as interpreted through rates of recognition, recall and purchase intention. Runners were divided into three...Read more

Chrysostomos Giannoulakis

Abstract: Elias Katirtsigianoglou is an interesting figure: outgoing, charming, active, sociable, energetic, successful, and well educated. By the time he reached his early 30s, he had acquired for himself what he called “the package.” He worked as a sales manager in a multinational company for renewable energy and had a personal sales record of approximately $60 million. He owned a house in the United Kingdom, a fancy car, and was in a fruitful relationship. However, at the age of 32, he was diagnosed with testicular cancer and doctors gave him six months to live. As he was resting in a...Read more

Jorg Henseler
Bradley Wilson
Kate Westberg

This paper examines how sponsors perceive the impact of different elements of a sponsorship package on brand equity. An empirical study using an online survey was conducted among key managers involved in sponsoring football clubs in the Netherlands. This study develops a formative measure of sponsorship, termed the Sport Sponsorship Index, and links this measure with brand equity. Results indicate that the various facets of a sport sponsorship package, such as exposure of the brand and coverage of the sport, are perceived by sponsors to contribute differently to the impact on brand equity...Read more

Elizabeth Jowdy
Mark McDonald

As the number of sport leagues and events continues to increase, so does the amount of sponsorship dollars required for each to survive. Sport properties/organizers are not only charged with producing unique products for consumers, they must offer unique marketing platforms that attract corporate sponsors. Although sponsorship spending in North America has steadily risen, from $5.9 billion in 1997 to $9.5 billion in 2001 (International Events Group Sponsorship Report 2001), corporations increasingly command managers to thoroughly justify sponsorship investments, due to a struggling economy...Read more

Hans Westerbeek
Aaron Smith

Theories explaining the mechanics of sport sponsorship relationships are underdeveloped (Gilbert, 1988; Hoek, Gendall, & West, 1990; Pope, 1998), bolstered by studies lacking systematic methods (Kuzma, Shanklin, & McCally, 1993) and tending toward broad, descriptive, macro-level analysis (Sandler & Shani, 1993). This paper attempts to redress this empirical chasm in a small way by examining an element of the sponsorship relationship. Specifically, this paper explores the importance of one particular mode of sponsorship delivery: the location of a venue containing sponsor...Read more

Gregg Bennett
James Zhang
Robin Henson

Action sports, an emerging genre of individualistic sports, has increased immensely in popularity over the past few years (Petrecca, 2000; Bennett & Henson, 2001). Sponsorship of action sports events has likewise increased rapidly over the last few years, and these sponsorships are prevalent on most televised event broadcasts. Research suggests that there is an expansive and increasing action sports industry (Bennett & Henson, 2001). Several major corporate sponsors have uncovered the benefits of advertising on ESPN, NBC, and others. Advertising research is replete with examples of...Read more

Lizhong Geng
Rick Burton
Connie Blakemore

This study conducted a gap analysis (a study of differences between two groups) to compare major sport organizations with most of the commercial corporations for sponsorship applications in China. The study was undertaken with the possibility that Beijing would host the 2008 Olympic Games and that sport marketing and sport sponsorship would therefore increase in visibility in China over the next 7 years. The study yielded three major findings. First, the problems that emerged in sport marketing in China were identified as strategic issues. Second, a formidable philosophical gap separates...Read more