Jason Simmons
Nels Popp
and T. Christopher Greenwell

College students represent an important target market for intercollegiate athletic marketers; however, re-cent years have seen a nationwide trend of declining student attendance at high-profile sporting events (Cohen, 2014; Rowland, 2019). The current study examined this issue by studying the influence of constraints on student attendance. Data were collected in partnership with the National Association of Collegiate Marketing Administrators (NACMA). In total, more than 23,000 respondents from 60 NCAA Di-vision I institutions participated in the study. Conjoint analysis was utilized to...Read more

Dean V. Baim
Levon Goukasian
Marilyn B. Misch

This paper examines the impact of Olympic Sponsorship announcements on stock returns for sponsors of the ten Olympic Summer Games held between 1984 and 2020. The paper finds that sponsorship announcements are associated with an average 0.44% impact on returns on the announcement day. This increase translates to a $61 million increase in sponsoring firms’ market value, on average. The study also documents significant differences in the impact of Olympic sponsorship announcements on domestic versus foreign sponsors’ stock returns as well as significant differences on the returns of Olympic...Read more

Antonio Friedman-Soza
Jorge R. Friedman
Domingo H. Pozo
and Carlos F. Yevenes

Applying probit in Mexican micro data we conclude that sporting event attendance is determined mostly by education, income, gender, employment, marital status, ethnic origin, urbanization, and age. Showing that education is so central in the decision to attend a sporting event in developing countries is perhaps the most distinctive feature of the study; highly educated people are seven times more likely to buy tickets to sporting events than those with little formal education. The data fit information criteria confirms the importance of education. These results reveal yet another mechanism...Read more

Fernando Lera-López
Manuel Rapún-Gárate
María José Suárez

This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge regarding individual consumption on sports attendance—a subject that has been rarely analyzed in the economic literature due to the lack of appropriate databases. Specifically, we analyze the determinants of sports attendance consumption using Spanish survey data, assuming that the consumption decision is derived from the attendance decision. In the empirical analysis, we estimate the consumption equation in reduced form, applying a Tobit model with selectivity—a special case of double-hurdle models. The data for this study came from a Spanish...Read more