Elizabeth B. Delia
Matthew Katz
and Cole G. Armstrong

For decades, scholars have sought to understand individuals’ identification with sport teams. As a result, we have great knowledge of how team identification influences a variety of attitudinal and behavioral out-comes as well as the impact of identifying with a team on an individual’s sense of self. However, nearly all studies of team identification have dealt with men’s sport rather than women’s sport. The authors addressed this issue in the current study by using the Delphi technique to solicit expert opinion on the lack of team identification research in women’s sport, including...Read more

Kevin K. Byon
Carolina Alves de Lima Salge
Thomas A. Baker III
and Charles W. Jones

The purpose of the current study was to examine (a) the mediating effect of negotiation on the relationship between fans’ motivations and constraints to consume sport and to (b) investigate the moderating role of team identification in a sport consumption model of motivation, constraints, and negotiation. Using two datasets from various college athletics stakeholders (i.e., students, alumni, and non-college associated fans) at a large university in the southeastern United States. Our analyses using structural equation modeling show that negotiation mediates the relationship between...Read more

Kyungyeol Anthony Kim and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this study is to examine the negative effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB) on other spectators’ anger, rumination, and revisit intention. More specifically, in Study 1, we show that SDB (vs. spectator normal behavior [SNB]) elicited other spectators’ anger and reduced revisit intention. Anger significantly mediated the relationship between SDB (vs. SNB) and revisit intention. The negative effects of SDB and anger on revisit intention became positive as team identification increased. In Study 2, we demonstrate that rumination regarding SDB incidents evoked focal...Read more

Kyungyeol Anthony Kim and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this study is to examine the negative effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB) on other spectators’ anger, rumination, and revisit intention. More specifically, in Study 1, we show that SDB (vs. spectator normal behavior [SNB]) elicited other spectators’ anger and reduced revisit intention. Anger significantly mediated the relationship between SDB (vs. SNB) and revisit intention. The negative effects of SDB and anger on revisit intention became positive as team identification increased. In Study 2, we demonstrate that rumination regarding SDB incidents evoked focal...Read more

Wonseok (Eric) Jang
Joon Sung Lee
Janice Cho
and Jeoung-Hak Lee

Using an in-group bias effect as a theoretical framework, this study examined how scandal-ridden athletes may obtain forgiveness and continuous support from highly identified sport consumers depending on the visual strategy used in the official statement and the severity of the scandal. The results indicated that for a high-severity scandal, an angular shape is more effective than a circular shape in eliciting positive evaluations from highly identified sport consumers. In contrast, for a low-severity scandal, a circular shape is more effective than an angular shape in obtaining positive...Read more

Katherine R. N. Reifurth
Matthew J. Bernthal
Khalid Ballouli
and Dorothy Collins

Sports fans’ identification with their hometown is a very salient aspect of who they are, and thus, they are likely to be attracted to teams that represent the place they call “home.” Although recent sport marketing studies have shed light on the importance of home among fans, there is a void in the literature relative to “nonlocal fans.” This study aims to examine how geographic distance, geographic identity, and the presence of other local teams affect team identification for different types of nonlocal fans: displaced and nondisplaced fans. Nine hundred and twenty self-identified...Read more

Jeffrey D. James
Elizabeth B. Delia
and Daniel L. L. Wann

Scholars have studied sport team identification for decades, advancing our understanding of the influence of a psychological connection to a sport team on attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Despite the contribution of the study of team identification to the sport fan psychology and sport consumer behavior literatures, a critical issue is apparent. A review of the methods used by scholars to assess and study team identification uncovered a misinterpretation of participant responses to team identification scale items. In previous re-search, not-identified individuals have been examined as...Read more

Eric Brownlee
T. Christopher Greenwell
and Anita Moorman

One of the benefits of being an official sponsor is the right to use the term “official sponsor” to differentiate a company’s association with a property from other companies (non-sponsors). Official sponsors may pay a premium for those designations; however, there is uncertainty as to whether or not those designations are effective. This study utilizes scenarios simulating official Major League Baseball (MLB) team sponsorship, official MLB sponsorship, and no official association with MLB or the team to assess the effect of these statuses on purchase intentions. Results from a sample of...Read more

Hyun-Woo Lee
Christina Gipson
and Chris Barnhill

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact that flow and team identification have on spectators’ perceptions of stadium atmosphere. Data were collected from students attending men’s basketball and baseball games at a large NCAA Division I university. The results indicated that stadium flow is directly related to spectators’ perceptions of the stadium atmosphere. Team identification was found to influence flow and also have a moderating effect in the model with stadium flow having a greater impact on lower-identified spectators than on highly identified fans.Read more

Jaewon Chang
Joon-Ho Kang
Yong Jae Ko
and Dan Connaughton

Although pride is considered an important concept in the business marketing literature, this emotional construct has not been explored in the context of sport fan behavior. In particular, very few studies have investigated the antecedents and consequences of pride. To fill the conceptual void, in the current study, the researchers investigated the relationships among pride, team performance/corporate social responsibility (CSR), and word of mouth (WOM) recommendation. The moderating effect of team identification was also examined. The results suggest that both fans’ perception of team...Read more

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