Matthew J. Bernthal
Khalid Ballouli
Nicholas Nugent

This research examines the effects on team loyalty of two minor league branding strategies, naming the team after its parent major league team or naming it after the local community in which it exists. We propose a mediation model in which four constructs (i.e., team identification, social bonding, community group experience, and pride in place) mediate effects of brand type on team loyalty, predicting that local branding will generate stronger team loyalty through these constructs. We also propose that place identity moderates the mediating effect of each of these four constructs....Read more

Wonseok (Eric) Jang
Joon Sung Lee
and Daniel L. L. Wann

Although empirical evidence indicates that sport media consumption has a positive effect on sport consumers’ subjective well-being (SWB), there is little information regarding how these enhancements in SWB change over time. Th e current research demonstrates that less identified sport consumers experienced greater levels of purpose in life when it was measured right after they recalled their past sport media consumption than when it was measured aft er a 15-minute delay. Meanwhile, the level of purpose in life was similar for highly identified sport consumers whether it was measured right...Read more

Anat Toder Alon and Avichai Shuv-Ami

This study employs the customer-centric model of brand communities (including fan-fan, fan-management, fan-team, and fan-product relationships) to examine sports fans through the two lenses of team identification and fan loyalty and explore the effect of these constructs on fans’ behavior. The study used an online panel-based survey to collect data from 742 football fans. Also, the study utilized exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and nomological network analysis to establish the validity and reliability of a new scale of fan-centric relationships of team sports...Read more

Elizabeth B. Delia
Matthew Katz
and Cole G. Armstrong

For decades, scholars have sought to understand individuals’ identification with sport teams. As a result, we have great knowledge of how team identification influences a variety of attitudinal and behavioral out-comes as well as the impact of identifying with a team on an individual’s sense of self. However, nearly all studies of team identification have dealt with men’s sport rather than women’s sport. The authors addressed this issue in the current study by using the Delphi technique to solicit expert opinion on the lack of team identification research in women’s sport, including...Read more

Kevin K. Byon
Carolina Alves de Lima Salge
Thomas A. Baker III
and Charles W. Jones

The purpose of the current study was to examine (a) the mediating effect of negotiation on the relationship between fans’ motivations and constraints to consume sport and to (b) investigate the moderating role of team identification in a sport consumption model of motivation, constraints, and negotiation. Using two datasets from various college athletics stakeholders (i.e., students, alumni, and non-college associated fans) at a large university in the southeastern United States. Our analyses using structural equation modeling show that negotiation mediates the relationship between...Read more

Kyungyeol Anthony Kim and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this study is to examine the negative effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB) on other spectators’ anger, rumination, and revisit intention. More specifically, in Study 1, we show that SDB (vs. spectator normal behavior [SNB]) elicited other spectators’ anger and reduced revisit intention. Anger significantly mediated the relationship between SDB (vs. SNB) and revisit intention. The negative effects of SDB and anger on revisit intention became positive as team identification increased. In Study 2, we demonstrate that rumination regarding SDB incidents evoked focal...Read more

Kyungyeol Anthony Kim and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this study is to examine the negative effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB) on other spectators’ anger, rumination, and revisit intention. More specifically, in Study 1, we show that SDB (vs. spectator normal behavior [SNB]) elicited other spectators’ anger and reduced revisit intention. Anger significantly mediated the relationship between SDB (vs. SNB) and revisit intention. The negative effects of SDB and anger on revisit intention became positive as team identification increased. In Study 2, we demonstrate that rumination regarding SDB incidents evoked focal...Read more

Wonseok (Eric) Jang
Joon Sung Lee
Janice Cho
and Jeoung-Hak Lee

Using an in-group bias effect as a theoretical framework, this study examined how scandal-ridden athletes may obtain forgiveness and continuous support from highly identified sport consumers depending on the visual strategy used in the official statement and the severity of the scandal. The results indicated that for a high-severity scandal, an angular shape is more effective than a circular shape in eliciting positive evaluations from highly identified sport consumers. In contrast, for a low-severity scandal, a circular shape is more effective than an angular shape in obtaining positive...Read more

Katherine R. N. Reifurth
Matthew J. Bernthal
Khalid Ballouli
and Dorothy Collins

Sports fans’ identification with their hometown is a very salient aspect of who they are, and thus, they are likely to be attracted to teams that represent the place they call “home.” Although recent sport marketing studies have shed light on the importance of home among fans, there is a void in the literature relative to “nonlocal fans.” This study aims to examine how geographic distance, geographic identity, and the presence of other local teams affect team identification for different types of nonlocal fans: displaced and nondisplaced fans. Nine hundred and twenty self-identified...Read more

Jeffrey D. James
Elizabeth B. Delia
and Daniel L. L. Wann

Scholars have studied sport team identification for decades, advancing our understanding of the influence of a psychological connection to a sport team on attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Despite the contribution of the study of team identification to the sport fan psychology and sport consumer behavior literatures, a critical issue is apparent. A review of the methods used by scholars to assess and study team identification uncovered a misinterpretation of participant responses to team identification scale items. In previous re-search, not-identified individuals have been examined as...Read more

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