Andrew Chupp
E. Frank Stephenson
Ron Taylor

Although conventional wisdom holds that alcohol availability increases baseball attendance, little evidence exists on the complementarity between attendance and alcohol availability. To address this gap in the literature, we examine the effect of Rome, Georgia’s November 2004 legalization of Sunday alcohol sales on a minor league baseball team’s attendance. OLS and Tobit estimates of an attendance model find no statistically significant effect of alcohol availability on attendance. In addition to analyzing the relationship between attendance and alcohol availability, we also perform back-...Read more

Ashley Stadler Blank
Kristi Sweeney
Rhema D. Fuller

Due to the growing buying power of diverse consumers and the importance of attendance to professional sports in the US, this study qualitatively examines the factors affecting African-American attendance at professional sporting events and identifies several attendance drivers and constraints, including alternative forms of commitment, atmosphere, comfort and convenience, cost, exposure and access to the sport, image and identity, performance and entertainment, social nature of sport, and value. These findings support and extend prior research by offering seven new factors affecting...Read more

Denise Linda Parris
Joris Drayer
Stephen L. Shapiro

Blame it on the weather? Or the economy? Even if these factors play a role in game day attendance, Larry knew there was a much bigger story behind the empty seats at Dodger Stadium. In 2011, the Los Angeles Dodgers averaged 36,236 fans per game, dropping from 43,979 in 2010 and 46,440 in 2009, an overall loss of about 10,000 fans per game in just two years (, 2012). In 2011, The Dodgers’ attendance ranking fell from first to eleventh in Major League Baseball (MLB), which amounted to a loss of over 800,000 tickets sold per year, as well as the resulting revenue from...Read more

Matthew Walker
Todd Hall
Samuel Y. Todd
Aubrey Kent

Sponsorship activity has increased dramatically over the last two decades, as has customer knowledge of this promotional activity associated with experiential consumption. While a number of studies have measured consumers’ understanding of how event marketing affects their evaluation of a brand, scant empirical attention has been paid to how consumers use sponsorships as signals of event quality. In a between-subjects experimental design, main effects were found for the sponsor’s functional similarity and regression analyses suggest that the strength of the sponsors’ influence predicted...Read more

Tony Lachowetz
Windy Dees
Sam Todd

It is less than a month to opening day as Bradley Dodson, General Manager, walks through Historic Grayson Stadium with John Simmons, the owner of the Savannah Sand Gnats. They survey the renovation of the stadium, comment on all the work that has been done, and contemplate what the future holds for the Sand Gnats. Dodson has been preparing for a staff meeting to discuss where the Sand Gnats stand and how to improve the organization. As he takes a seat in the stands and peers out to left field where the bleachers have been removed and the wall still needs to be finished, he considers “What...Read more

Daniel C. Funk
Kevin Filo
Anthony A. Beaton
Mark Pritchard

The ability to draw attendees to performances is vital to the success of a sport organization. As a result, sport managers and academics attempt to investigate motivations that drive decisions to attend events. In order to make predictions, academic demands have lead to the proliferation of instruments and constructs to capture a wide variety of motives, but these tools have limited ability to explain game attendance; and practitioners demand shorter scales to increase efficiency. The purpose of this research is to provide a parsimonious measuring tool of motives to explain sport event...Read more

Keith W. Lambrecht
Frederick Kaefer
Samuel D. Ramenofsky

Sportscape refers to service extensions and the physical surroundings of a sports event. This is a case study that focuses on sportscape factors and how they influence the overall satisfaction of spectators attending a PGA TOUR event. Golf is different from other sports in that it has a flexible venue and is experienced differently by spectators and, therefore, careful analysis must be given to sportscape factors. A survey was developed and implemented at a PGA TOUR event to identify the influence of eight specific sportscape factors on the level of satisfaction of spectators. Based on...Read more

Galen T. Trail
Matthew J. Robinson
Yu Kyoum Kim

The focus of this study was threefold: 1) to create a comprehensive list of possible structural constraints to attending a sport event; 2) to create categories of structural constraints; and 3) to determine whether males differed from females and whether attendees differed from non-attendees on structural constraints of sport attendance. Thirteen different structural constraint dimensions were identified from factor analysis. There were significant and meaningful differences by gender. Males perceived that the opportunity for other sport entertainment, and lack of team success, were...Read more

Donald P. Roy

More than 100 new minor league baseball stadiums were built in the 1990s and early 2000s following the opening of several successful new venues in Major League Baseball. Sports economics literature suggests that the economic impact potential of new stadiums is overstated because attendance gains from new stadiums are short lived (i.e., a novelty effect). This study examined the impact of new minor league baseball stadiums on annual attendance using attendance data from 101 stadiums opened between 1993 and 2004. Results indicated that attendance levels attained the first year a stadium...Read more

Richard M. Southall
Mark S. Nagel
Deborah J. LeGrande

Founded in 2001, the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA) began its existence basking in the reflected glory of the unprecedented media coverage of the 1999 Women's World Cup Finals. However, for any sport league to be successful, it must generate sufficient revenue to cover operating expenses. While the WUSA declared itself a major league and based its strategic plan on a philosophy of being the world's premier women's professional soccer league, its fan base suggested a much moreRead more