Jason Simmons
Nels Popp
and T. Christopher Greenwell

College students represent an important target market for intercollegiate athletic marketers; however, re-cent years have seen a nationwide trend of declining student attendance at high-profile sporting events (Cohen, 2014; Rowland, 2019). The current study examined this issue by studying the influence of constraints on student attendance. Data were collected in partnership with the National Association of Collegiate Marketing Administrators (NACMA). In total, more than 23,000 respondents from 60 NCAA Di-vision I institutions participated in the study. Conjoint analysis was utilized to...Read more

Kevin K. Byon
Carolina Alves de Lima Salge
Thomas A. Baker III
and Charles W. Jones

The purpose of the current study was to examine (a) the mediating effect of negotiation on the relationship between fans’ motivations and constraints to consume sport and to (b) investigate the moderating role of team identification in a sport consumption model of motivation, constraints, and negotiation. Using two datasets from various college athletics stakeholders (i.e., students, alumni, and non-college associated fans) at a large university in the southeastern United States. Our analyses using structural equation modeling show that negotiation mediates the relationship between...Read more

Galen T. Trail
Matthew J. Robinson
Yu Kyoum Kim

The focus of this study was threefold: 1) to create a comprehensive list of possible structural constraints to attending a sport event; 2) to create categories of structural constraints; and 3) to determine whether males differed from females and whether attendees differed from non-attendees on structural constraints of sport attendance. Thirteen different structural constraint dimensions were identified from factor analysis. There were significant and meaningful differences by gender. Males perceived that the opportunity for other sport entertainment, and lack of team success, were...Read more