Consolidation of Concepts and Scales Examining External Activation Factors Affecting Sport Consumption

Galen T. Trail
Priscila Alfaro-Barrantes
and Yukyoum Kim

Throughout the sport management literature, a plethora of scales exist that measure constructs that impact sport consumption. Although the scales have different names and may be derived from different theories, many of them use the same items. We propose to consolidate those scales in order to create one unified scale. Specifically, the purpose of this paper was to determine whether Keller’s (1993) brand association framework (product attributes, non-product attributes, and product benefits) could consolidate the existing models and theories that purport to measure what impacts people to consume sport. The results suggest that Keller’s model could be modified to include two more categories (organizational constraints and brand management attributes). Also, applying PLS Path Modeling using cSEM showed that the proposed model explained more variance in sport consumption intentions than other models found in the literature.