Kevin Alavy
Alison Gaskell
Stephanie Leach
Stefan Szymanski

This paper examines the relationship between the demand for English football on television and outcome uncertainty. It tests the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis by using minute-by-minute television viewership figures which avoids the problems encountered when estimating demand using match attendance. We find that although uncertainty matters, it is the progression of the match which drives viewership and as a draw looks increasingly likely, viewers are likely to switch channels. Games that end in victories have a higher average viewership than games that end in stalemates.Read more

Ángel Barajas
Plácido Rodríguez

This paper shows the current financial situation of Spanish professional football. Different financial ratios are used in order to classify the financial position of the different teams. The study has been split between clubs in First or Second division. We also analyze the relationships between the size of market, team payrolls, and team performance. We demonstrate the financial problems created by the arms race that clubs have started for getting the most talented players for trying to get the best possible sporting outcome. The new Spanish Law for companies in financial distress has...Read more

Bernd Frick

The revenues of professional football clubs in Europe have increased enormously over the last decades. The big five European leagues (England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain) in 2007-08 generated revenues of almost €10 billion, of which €3 billion have to be attributed to the English Premier League and €1.8 billion each to the Spanish “La Liga,” the Italian “Serie A,” and the German “Bundesliga.”Read more

Troels Troelsen

UEFA is the sports governing body for football (soccer) in Europe with 53 national associations as members of a democratic organization. UEFA is also the most important member of FIFA, which is the international governing body for football. UEFA organizes all European Championships and Youth Championships, as well as two trans-European playoffs every year between the best teams from the national leagues. The better teams from the 53 national leagues are, with some playoffs for the positions, playing in these two leagues. And the better the teams from a national league are performing, the...Read more

Robert A. Lawson
Kathleen Sheehan
E. Frank Stephenson

In January 2007, Major League Soccer (MLS) announced that international soccer sensation David Beckham would be joining the league playing for the LA Galaxy. This paper examines Beckham¡¯s effect on MLS ticket sales for the 2007 season. Depending on specification, our results indicate that Beckham increased ticket sales as a share of stadium capacity by about 55 percentage points. We then use these results to evaluate MLS¡¯s Designated Player Rule and to perform a back-of-the-envelope calculation of Beckham¡¯s benefit to the LA Galaxy.Read more

Rui Biscaia
Abel Correia
Stephen Ross
António Rosado
João Maroco

The purpose of this study was to assess brand equity in professional soccer teams. Through a preliminary analysis and further adaptation of the Spectator-Based Brand Equity (SBBE) scale, a refined model was tested among soccer fans. Results gathered from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable fit of the model to the data and confirmed the relationship between Internalization, a single first-order construct, and Brand Associations, a second-order construct with ten dimensions. Review of the psychometric properties indicated all constructs had good internal consistency,...Read more

Blaine T. Uhlman
Galen T. Trail

The Seattle Sounders FC took Major League Soccer by storm in its inaugural season of 2009. The club led the league in attendance, won the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup trophy, and clinched a playoff berth. The team’s success was attributed in part to its rabid fan base, which routinely sold out its 30,000-seat venue and nearly doubled the league attendance average. How was it that an expansion franchise was able to garner such immediate, fervent support, while original franchises with well-established fan bases struggled? This case study sought to supplement the limited current literature...Read more

Sagatoma Tokyama
T. Christopher Greenwell

Knowing similarities and differences between sport participants and spectators can be advantageous for sport marketers as it may allow sport organizations to increase their consumer base beyond their traditional consumers. Therefore, the present study is aimed at examining similarities and differences of consumer motivation for both playing and watching sports. Using a sample of soccer consumers who both play and watch soccer (N = 237), the study found that for the most part, motivations for playing and watching soccer were different. However, affiliation was found to predict commitment to...Read more

Pawel Waszka

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) unveiled a brand new logo for the upcoming 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil on July 8, 2010 (“Official Emblem,” n.d.). The Official Emblem of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, called Inspiration, features three victorious hands together raising the World Cup Trophy. Yellow and green are Brazilian colors and they dominate the design. The words 2014 FIFA World Cup Brasil complement the picture (see Figure 1). The official launch took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, three days before the final match of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. This high...Read more

Jorg Henseler
Bradley Wilson
Kate Westberg

This paper examines how sponsors perceive the impact of different elements of a sponsorship package on brand equity. An empirical study using an online survey was conducted among key managers involved in sponsoring football clubs in the Netherlands. This study develops a formative measure of sponsorship, termed the Sport Sponsorship Index, and links this measure with brand equity. Results indicate that the various facets of a sport sponsorship package, such as exposure of the brand and coverage of the sport, are perceived by sponsors to contribute differently to the impact on brand equity...Read more

Pages