Michael L. Naraine
Jordan T. Bakhsh
and Liz Wanless

Social media has become an important frontier in the sport sponsorship paradigm (Dees, 2011), offering brands a powerful mechanism to stimulate consumer engagement (Vale & Fernandes, 2018). Despite this potential, the extent to which social media content, as part of a sport sponsorship’s leveraging activities, can yield consumer engagement behaviors is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of integrating sponsors into the social media posts of sport organizations on fan engagement. A total of 13,542 Instagram posts from four professional sports teams were...Read more

Justin Graeber and Angeline Close Scheinbaum

The aim is to advance the understanding of how brand-property congruence and articulation strategy influence the perception of jersey sponsorships and how consumer-level factors such as team identification affect sponsorship outcomes. Different types of fi t and sponsor categories were tested to determine the most effective type of fi t as determined by outcomes of attitude toward team and sponsor, sponsor patronage, and perceptions of team and sponsor social responsibility. With a pretest (n=154) and two experiments (n=169, n=172), results indicated sponsors with a functional-based fit...Read more

Henry Wear
Dorothy Rodgers Collins
and Bob Heere

When the Charlotte Bobcats became the Charlotte Hornets at the beginning of the 2014 NBA season, the team became the first in history to rebrand itself with a moniker previously used and recently dropped by another NBA franchise. Despite being bound by NBA branding and merchandising rules, the organization was able to re-imagine the original Hornets brand to create a new distinct brand identity that pushed the organization into the future while still honoring the past. The franchise employed a variety of creative brand communication techniques, including sending Hugo the Hornet mascot door...Read more

Brandon Brown
Gregg Bennett
and Khalid Ballouli

The United States, sport marketers are faced with challenges of capturing the interest and altering the consumption patterns of this important minority group. A primary objective of this research was to determine if African American participants would perceive a greater overall fit with a baseball advertisement if the actors and settings shown in the advertisement resembled their racial and cultural identities. Existing literature on the match-up hypothesis and theory of reasoned action guided this research and aided in hypothesis development. Two-hundred eighty-three African American...Read more

Jeremy Scott Jordan
Simon Brandon-Lai
Mikihiro Sato
Aubrey Kent
Daniel C. Funk

The use of online data collection techniques in sport marketing research has increased in recent years. The value of data obtained this way is determined, in part, by the quality of survey response. Scholars have studied strategies that enhance survey response, including the use of notification and topic salience. However, empirical support for the use of notification has been obtained primarily from mail-based survey research, so it is unclear if the benefits would be evident with online data collection. This study examined the influence of notification techniques and topic salience,...Read more

Lisa Pike Masteralexis

The U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decision in American Needle v. National Football League is not the “death knell” of collective licensing agreements in sports, but it will hold the NFL and other professional sports entities to a higher level of antitrust scrutiny than they had hoped. The issue in American Needle v. National Football League was whether the NFL’s collective licensing arm, NFL Properties, LLC (NFLP), was a single entity, and therefore, exempt from antitrust liability under Section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Section 1 deems “[e]very contract, combination in the form of a...Read more

Anita M. Moorman

The Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (PASPA) prohibits state lotteries that employ a wagering scheme related to the outcome of sports contests (Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, 2010). Four states (Oregon, Nevada, Delaware, and Montana) which had operated sports betting schemes before the passage of PASPA were provided a limited exemption from PASPA. PASPA “grandfathered” gambling schemes in these states “to the extent that the scheme was conducted by that State” between 1976 and 1990. Following the passage of PASPA, only two states, Nevada and Oregon,...Read more

Jim Kadlecek

Jim Kadlecek interviewed five industry leaders and asked them to consider five areas of sport marketing and what they expect in 2010.Read more

K. Damon Aiken
Eric C. Koch

Through the somewhat novel use of conjoint analysis, this work gains insight into fans’ initial preference formations, the weights given to team attributes, and the complexity of the decision task. Two separate studies investigate various team preference factors, including: winning percentage, presence of high-profile “all-star” players, geographic association, social affiliation, and team history within a league. Sport-category differences, gender differences, and fan identification-level differences are explored. Findings suggest fans, in general, appear to view the big three sports of...Read more

Sam Fullerton
G. Russell Merz

Despite its acknowledged contribution to local, national, and global economies, there is no consensus as to exactly what is meant by the term sports marketing. This conceptual paper attempts to address this deficiency via the development of a new framework that is based upon two key dimensions: type of product and level of sports integration. By categorizing goods and services as either sports products or nonsports products and by differentiating between traditional strategies and sponsorship-based strategies, four sports marketing domains are identified. They are the theme-based, product-...Read more

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