Masayuki Yoshida
Brian S. Gordon
Makoto Nakazawa
and Naoko Yoshioka

Synthesizing several streams of theoretical reasoning such as attribution theory, cue-utilization theory, and place attachment, the purposes of this study were to (1) develop a new theoretical model integrating key atmospheric stimuli and the two dimensions of stadium attachment (stadium identity and stadium dependence) into stadium atmosphere research and (2) examine the hypothesized relationships. Data were collected from spectators attending professional baseball games at theme park-like (n = 242) and traditional (n = 300) stadiums. Based on the results, the dimensions of game-,...Read more

Hyun-Woo Lee
Christina Gipson
and Chris Barnhill

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact that flow and team identification have on spectators’ perceptions of stadium atmosphere. Data were collected from students attending men’s basketball and baseball games at a large NCAA Division I university. The results indicated that stadium flow is directly related to spectators’ perceptions of the stadium atmosphere. Team identification was found to influence flow and also have a moderating effect in the model with stadium flow having a greater impact on lower-identified spectators than on highly identified fans.Read more