Petri Lintumäki
Hannes Winner
Ioannis Konstantopoulos
Diana Alexe
and Martin Schnitzer

This paper aims to explore participants’ willingness to pay (WTP) for offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their participation in the World Winter Masters Games 2020 (WWMG20) in Innsbruck, Austria. We collected data from an online survey sent to participants at the event and used the contingent valuation approach to determine participants’ WTP and a set of alternative regression models to investigate the factors that mainly influence WTP. Our results show that the median WTP for offsetting GHG lies within a range of EUR 10 (lower bound) to EUR 20 (upper bound)....Read more

Tim Pawlowski
Oliver Budzinski

Ever since the pioneering work of Rottenberg (1956) and Neale (1964), the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis (UOH) has played a major role in the economic analysis of professional sport leagues. However, decades of empirical research have not been successful in establishing clear evidence for the importance of competitive balance (CB) for attendance or TV viewers in European professional football. In order to find possible reasons for the gap between the UOH and (the lack of) its empirical validation, our paper adopts a stated preference approach focused on the fans’ perception of CB and...Read more