Galen T. Trail
Priscila Alfaro-Barrantes
and Yukyoum Kim

Throughout the sport management literature, a plethora of scales exist that measure constructs that impact sport consumption. Although the scales have different names and may be derived from different theories, many of them use the same items. We propose to consolidate those scales in order to create one unified scale. Specifically, the purpose of this paper was to determine whether Keller’s (1993) brand association framework (product attributes, non-product attributes, and product benefits) could consolidate the existing models and theories that purport to measure what impacts people to...Read more

Kevin K. Byon
Carolina Alves de Lima Salge
Thomas A. Baker III
and Charles W. Jones

The purpose of the current study was to examine (a) the mediating effect of negotiation on the relationship between fans’ motivations and constraints to consume sport and to (b) investigate the moderating role of team identification in a sport consumption model of motivation, constraints, and negotiation. Using two datasets from various college athletics stakeholders (i.e., students, alumni, and non-college associated fans) at a large university in the southeastern United States. Our analyses using structural equation modeling show that negotiation mediates the relationship between...Read more

Soojin Kim
Yongjae Kim
and Seungbum Lee

The purpose of this study is to identify the prominent athletic donor motives in an NCAA Division II athletic program, employing the scale of Athletic Donor Motivation (Ko, Rhee, Walker, & Lee, 2014), and to assess the impact of the identified motives on giving behavior. A total of two hundred and thirty two actual donors housed in an NCAA Division II university were used for analysis. To test the psychometric properties of the measurement and examine the relationship between donation motives and actual donation behavior, a confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation...Read more

Richard J. Buning and Matthew Walker

Mass participant sport events (MPSEs) have experienced substantial growth both in the amount and types of events offered. The endurance event industry has recently shifted towards non-traditional events, but an exploration of this new type of event is lacking. Accordingly, research is needed to assess the motives of nontraditional MPSE participants. This research was conducted to explore participant motivations to compete in two different MPSEs. Using an online questionnaire, event participants from two different event contexts (i.e., traditional and non-traditional) were examined (N...Read more

Girish Prayag
Elsa Grivel

The present study is aimed at segmenting participants’ motivation for attending the Interamnia World Cup (IWC) in 2012 and identifying whether motivational profiles differ by demographics and post-consumption behaviors. The IWC is an annual event hosted by the city of Teramo-Italy and is aimed at young participants interested in the sport of handball. Based on a sample of international sport tourists (n = 242), the study uncovers four clusters of participants (Indifferent, Enthusiast, Socializer, and Competitive). The results confirm that the youth segment of sport tourists is not...Read more

Sagatoma Tokyama
T. Christopher Greenwell

Knowing similarities and differences between sport participants and spectators can be advantageous for sport marketers as it may allow sport organizations to increase their consumer base beyond their traditional consumers. Therefore, the present study is aimed at examining similarities and differences of consumer motivation for both playing and watching sports. Using a sample of soccer consumers who both play and watch soccer (N = 237), the study found that for the most part, motivations for playing and watching soccer were different. However, affiliation was found to predict commitment to...Read more

Boyun Woo
T. Trail
Hyungil Harry Kwon
Dean Anderson

As the spectator sport market has become large and competition for consumers has increased, the need for understanding spectators’ motives and points of attachment has become important for developing effective marketing strategies. The purpose of the study was to examine four different models that explain the relationships among motives and points of attachment and determine a model that explains the most variance in the referent variables. A total of 501 college students responded to the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC) and the Points of Attachment Index (PAI). The results...Read more

Jung-uk Won
Kaoru Kitamura

This study aimed to refine and further develop existing motivation scales (i.e., MSSC by Trail and James, 2001; SII by Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, & Hirakawa, 2001) in a cross-national context, and to examine differences of descriptive variables (e.g., demographics, attendance frequency) and spectator motives between South Korean and Japanese professional soccer spectators. We confirmed that the refined motivation scales we developed were valid and that they reliably measured Korean and Japanese soccer spectators’ motives. We also found that there were several differences in demographics,...Read more