John Vincent
John S. Hill
Jason W. Lee

The career of David Beckham, celebrity soccer player, has had its highs and lows. But through it all, one thing has remained constant, David Beckham has rarely ventured out of the media or the public eye. For a decade, from his 1995 debut for Manchester United, his career went from strength to strength, his on-field brilliance matched only by his soaring marketing appeal in a sport that massively commercialized in the 1990s (Cashmore & Parker, 2003).Read more

Yongjae Kim
Patrick Walsh
Stephen D. Ross

Despite the growing popularity of sport video games (SVGs), particularly as it relates to their growth as a marketing tool, there has been relatively little research on the psychology and behavior of the sport video gamer. The current study examined the psychological and consumptive behavior of sport video gamers across different levels of game play. Data from 239 gamers was collected from four popular online video game sites. This study provides evidence that sport video gamers are sport fans that engage in a variety of sport consumptive behaviors. The findings also suggest that sport...Read more

Ronald J. Dick
Brian A. Turner

NBA teams use a variety of marketing techniques to try to increase game attendance. However, few research studies have compared their effectiveness. More importantly, no study to date has compared the perceptions of NBA marketing directors and ticket holders with regard to currently used marketing techniques. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine whether the marketing techniques that NBA marketing directors viewed as valuable and useful were viewed in a similar fashion by attendees at NBA games. A questionnaire containing the 20 most used marketing techniques—based...Read more

Linda A. Sharp

The beauty of tort law is that it retains an inherent flexibility responsive to societal developments and new technologies. Whether we are dealing with a horsedrawn carriage run amuck or a modern-day marketing promotion using a t-shirt cannon, courts still address the essential and fundamental issues of duty, breach of duty, causation and damages. A recent New York case illustrates a court’s reliance on long-established precedent as it decided the case of the flying t-shirts.Read more

Jacquelyn Cuneen
Janet S. Fink

In order to compete with cities in more temperate climates and thus have a Super Bowl awarded to their city, the Detroit Host Committee, Detroit Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau, politicians, local government, and other agencies planned and staged a bid convincing National Football League owners that a cold climate was a perfect setting for a Super Bowl. This paper outlines the components of a hallmark bid, shows how Detroit’s bidding and planning made the city a prime site for one of the world’s largest events, and addresses some of the ultimate accomplishments of Detroit’s Super Bowl...Read more

Ray G. Schneider
Cheri L. Bradish

The marketing of ‘place?is often overlooked throughout academic research. Because ‘place?can include both the physical location as well as means of distribution, it has been regarded as the most difficult marketing component to adjust. This paper investigates Super Bowl XL, which was held in Detroit, Michigan, and the marketing strategies and principles used by the Detroit Super Bowl Bid Committee. Clearly, role of ‘place?was not only instrumental in Detroit being awarded the Super Bowl but also vital to the success of North America’s preeminent sporting event.Read more

Colleen McGlone
Nathan Martin

The use of cause-related marketing (CRM) in sport appears to be increasing in popularity. These campaigns often create win-win situations for all parties involved. However, utilizing CRM campaigns in the sport arena does not come without risk and may ultimately limit the return on investment (ROI) for which many corporations seek. There are many illustrations of CRM campaigns in sport, one of which is the Live Strong campaign. Through this campaign, the Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) has attracted a great deal of attention and media exposure creating both increased awareness and...Read more

Colleen C. Bee
Lynn R. Kahle

This paper examines how and why consumers develop, enter into, and maintain relationships in a sports marketing context. This paper presents a framework for understanding how and why consumers engage in relationship marketing. Based on Kelman’s functional approach to attitude change, this framework presents three qualitatively different levels for understanding relationship formation and maintenance: (a) compliance is superficial, temporary, and often the result of external influence; (b) identification is related to selfesteem and image enhancement of sport consumers; and (c)...Read more

Gregg Bennett
George B. Cunningham
Windy Dees

The purpose of this study was to assess the marketing communication activations of a professional tennis tournament. Results indicate that respondents were satisfied with the marketing communications activations chosen by managers and marketers of the event. For example, most spectators (77%) learned of the event from television, which was their preferred media for becoming aware of the tournament. In addition, most spectators (94.6%) believed that it was good for companies, and specifically those based in Houston or Texas, to sponsor the tournament. The spectators also indicated that such...Read more