Brendan Dwyer

Guided by the Attitude-Behavior Relationship framework, Drayer, Shapiro, Dwyer, Morse, and White (2010) qualitatively developed and proposed a conceptual model to explain the relationship between fantasy football and National Football League (NFL) consumption. Within this framework, it was proposed that in-season game outcomes related to one’s favorite NFL team and fantasy football team impact a participant’s attitudes and trigger additional NFL consumption. Utilizing a pre-post research design, the purpose of the current study was to assess a fantasy participant’s attitudinal and...Read more

Chiyoung Kim
Bob Heere

While consumers within emerging markets are the largest growth market for global sport apparel brands, relatively little is known about how they perceive these brands. These emerging markets have recently become consumer markets for Western brands, yet they initially served as producing nations. This study examined how this transition affected consumer perceptions on global sport apparel brands. Consumer behavior theories, such as the brand as “Western status symbol,” ethnocentrism, the country of origin effect, and the country of manufacturing effect were all incorporated within this...Read more

Brendan Dwyer
Joris Drayer

Sport fandom is one of the preeminent leisure activities in our society, and contemporary sport consumption has evolved to a point wherein it includes several activities such as event attendance, television viewership, and publication subscriptions, both online and in print. Among these means of sport fan consumption is fantasy sport participation. While the activity has grown immensely within the past few decades, relatively little is known about who participates and what impact participation has on the consumption of sport products and services. Thus, the aim of this study was to...Read more

Jeremy J. Sierra
Harry A. Taute
Robert S. Heiser

Although personal opinions and beliefs influence consumer behavior, research linking such factors to sport consumption is deficient. Hence, two studies are developed. Study 1 explores beliefs (i.e., internal locus of control for game outcomes) and opinions (i.e., personal expertise about a team, attitude toward the head coach) as determinants of fans’ willingness to attend games and purchase apparel of their favorite college football team. Study 2 examines these same determinants of fans’ willingness to attend games involving their least favorite college football team. Study 1 results...Read more

Damon P. S. Andrew
Seungmo Kim
Nick O’Neal
T. Christopher Greenwell
Jeffrey D. James

The purpose of this paper is to explore how nine motives impact media and merchandise consumption among consumers of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). The present study extends previous research by examining the relationship between motivations and merchandise and media consumption among consumers at a large, professional MMA event. A one-way MANOVA was computed to test for gender differences in relation to attendance motivations in the present sample. After significant differences among spectator motives were identified, two separate backward deletion linear regression analyses revealed...Read more

Coyte G. Cooper
Erianne A. Weight

During the past 25 years, NCAA wrestling has experienced a significant decline in the number of programs offered at the intercollegiate level. Amid the current economic landscape facing intercollegiate athletics, it appears that the only sure way to enhance the longevity of college wrestling is through increased fan support and revenue. The purpose of the research was to survey stakeholders of college wrestling to determine their level of satisfaction with the rules and regulations implemented in NCAA wrestling competitions. Utilizing customer satisfaction theory, a national survey was...Read more

Boyun Woo
T. Trail
Hyungil Harry Kwon
Dean Anderson

As the spectator sport market has become large and competition for consumers has increased, the need for understanding spectators’ motives and points of attachment has become important for developing effective marketing strategies. The purpose of the study was to examine four different models that explain the relationships among motives and points of attachment and determine a model that explains the most variance in the referent variables. A total of 501 college students responded to the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC) and the Points of Attachment Index (PAI). The results...Read more

Galen T. Trail
Matthew J. Robinson
Yu Kyoum Kim

The focus of this study was threefold: 1) to create a comprehensive list of possible structural constraints to attending a sport event; 2) to create categories of structural constraints; and 3) to determine whether males differed from females and whether attendees differed from non-attendees on structural constraints of sport attendance. Thirteen different structural constraint dimensions were identified from factor analysis. There were significant and meaningful differences by gender. Males perceived that the opportunity for other sport entertainment, and lack of team success, were...Read more

Ketra L. Armstrong

The primary purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the sport attendance of a convenience sample of Consumers of Color (n=129) and Caucasian consumers (n=172) who resided in a large urban area on the West Coast of the United States. No significant differences were revealed in the consumers’ attitudes about sports, their level of sport fanship, or their predominant sport consumption patterns. Regarding sport attendance, no significant differences were found between the consumer groups on the importance of event accessibility or event attractiveness factors. Significant...Read more

Donald P. Roy

More than 100 new minor league baseball stadiums were built in the 1990s and early 2000s following the opening of several successful new venues in Major League Baseball. Sports economics literature suggests that the economic impact potential of new stadiums is overstated because attendance gains from new stadiums are short lived (i.e., a novelty effect). This study examined the impact of new minor league baseball stadiums on annual attendance using attendance data from 101 stadiums opened between 1993 and 2004. Results indicated that attendance levels attained the first year a stadium...Read more