The Economic Choice of Participation and Time Spent in Physical Activity and Sport in Canada

Brad R. Humphreys and Jane E. Ruseski

Canadian Sport Policy calls for an increase in the number and diversity of Canadians participating in sport between 2012-2022 (Canadian Sport Policy, 2012). Understanding the determinants of physical activity and sport participation is central to achieving this objective. We estimate double hurdle models to analyze the individual determinants of physical activity in Canada. Separate consideration of participation and time spent decisions is important for untangling the effects of income, age, gender, and family structure on choices. Income is positively associated with participation in swimming, golfing, weight lifting, and running. Time spent walking, exercising at home, golfing, weight lifting, and running decreases with income. Wage rates are generally positively associated with participation and time spent.