Articles in this issue:

  • Toni J. Wyatt
    Leah McCullough
    Wade Wolgemuth

    Marketing to the female consumer through the athletic medium has become a valuable tool for sports marketers. Demographic research has revealed that women make up a significant percentge of spectators at sporting events. Based on this information, a conte ...Read more

  • Ketra L. Armstrong

    The Black Consumer market is a very lucrative market with unique characteristics. It is a widespread belief that blacks place much more emphasis on sport, and sports are salient to their culture. Nonetheless, such salience has not been demonstrated in the rate at which Blacks attend major sport events. This may be a result of Blacks' ommision as a visible target market for sports and the lack of concentrated marketing efforts to reach them. This is a trend that the sports industry should not continue, particularly as Blacks increase their economical and sociological power and as marketing...Read more

  • This column is designed to provide sport marketing academicians and practioners with brief descriptions of professionally relevant articles culled from a broad range of publications. Articles are arranged by subject matter, and listed alphabetically by author. Information regarding subscriptions and the acquiaition of back issues can be found at the end of the column.Read more

  • Richard Irwin

    Permanent Seat Licenses (PSLs) have emerged as a popular form of financing among sport team owners, leagues, municipal authorities, and taxpayers. Seat licenses, which allow purchasers access to venue event season tickets, ahev become revenue-producing mechanisms in the world of stadium economics. This paper examines the origins of seat licensing in the financing of major stadia, and their ultimate benefit to team/venue managers, municipal authorities, and taxpayer. Proposals are made for the successful implementation and management of seat licensing schemes, as are strategies for their...Read more

  • Lawrence W. Fielding
    Lori K. Miller

    American trade policies initiated after the Second World War opened American sporting goods markets to foreign competitiors during the 1960s and 1970s. Foreign competitors from Japan, the European Economic Community, Britian, and the Soviet Bloc coutries  ...Read more

  • Fred M. Beasley
    Matthew D. Shank
    Rebecca W. Ball

    This study examines the visual attention levels of viewers of the Super Bowl in a sports bar. The findings are that (a) visual attention levels for the Super Bowl game were similar to attention levels for the advertisements; (b) on average, subjects visually attended to Super Bowl commercials 50% of the time; (c) attention levels for commercials varied depending on their location in a cluster of commercials and the time during the game that the commercial was aired; (d) visual attention levels of women were higher for the Super Bowl commercials than they were for the game.Read more