The Threat to Football from Betting-Related Corruption, pp. 99-116
Manipulation of on-field events for betting gain appears to be a growing problem in football and other sports. It can be linked to developments in the betting environment and is a potential threat to the football industry to the extent that it may deter fans, sponsors, and broadcasters from purchasing the product. Risks are highest in European lower-tier competitions where high liquidity in the betting market contrasts with modest incomes among players and officials. The liquidity is provided principally by Asian betting markets that are largely unregulated, which itself is a significant obstacle to protecting the sport from corruption.