Articles in this issue:

  • Jung-uk Won
    Kaoru Kitamura

    This study aimed to refine and further develop existing motivation scales (i.e., MSSC by Trail and James, 2001; SII by Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, & Hirakawa, 2001) in a cross-national context, and to examine differences of descriptive variables (e.g., demographics, attendance frequency) and spectator motives between South Korean and Japanese professional soccer spectators. We confirmed that the refined motivation scales we developed were valid and that they reliably measured Korean and Japanese soccer spectators’ motives. We also found that there were several differences in demographics,...Read more

  • Stephen D. Ross
    Hyejin Bang
    Seungbum Lee

    The present study uses a rigorous procedure to examine the applicability, validity, and reliability of the Team Brand Association Scale (TBAS) in the context of intercollegiate ice hockey. Results from a sample of 349 season ticket holders from an intercollegiate ice hockey team indicated that the TBAS instrument was indeed valid in the collegiate sport setting. Given the functionality of the TBAS in the area of intercollegiate sport, university athletic marketers should be actively assessing the associations pertaining to specific teams. Furthermore, through an understanding of team brand...Read more

  • Laura Martínez Caro
    Jose Antonio Martínez García

    This research has focused on the evaluation of the consumer satisfaction process in a sport event. A popular athletic cross urban race, periodically organized by a City Council, has served as the framework for the study of cognitive and affective elements that drives satisfaction judgment and the moderator effect of sport motivations. A causal model is tested and the results show that satisfaction is primarily driven by an affective factor (arousal), and the effect of pleasure is not significant. The cognitive element is also important for determining satisfaction and future behavior...Read more

  • Matthew T. Brown
    David Matthew Zuefle
    Paul J. Batista

    Developing brand equity has been a focus of sport marketers over the past 15 years (Milne & McDonald, 1999). Mullin, Hardy, and Sutton (2000) stated that brand equity can be built through tangible product extensions, distinct trademarks, history, tradition, festival, and spectacle. In attempting to increase brand equity through a change in the building blocks of brand equity or antecedents of equity (Gladden, Milne & Sutton, 1998; Gladden & Milne, 1999), legal conflict may arise. For example, on August 26, 1993, Ohio University attempted to improve its brand equity when it...Read more

  • Aubrey Kent
    Richard M. Campbell

    On and around college campuses, many businesses display posters and banners, paint their storefronts with school mascots, and prominently use school team colors in promotional efforts. While many of these businesses are sponsors or members of school sanctioned booster organizations, some are not. Businesses that are not paying to be affiliated with the school, yet engage in such activities, seemingly fall within the definition of ambush marketing. We have labeled this distinct type of ambush marketing as “freeloading,” as companies realize benefits without paying for them, yet are not...Read more